Fractional Estado de Sonora notes
During 1913 fractional coinage gradually disappeared. Some companies tried to provide alternatives but once these had been prohibited by the governmentThe American banks had provided fractional coinage for the use of Mexican states but this was prohibited by the Constitutionalists (El Paso Morning Times, 18 February 1914). Presumably this was not American coinage but national coins transported from federal-held areas. Earlier in September 1913 Charles Montague of Cananea had found that he could ship fractional coins from Mexico City to the Mexican border but was not allowed to introduce them into rebel-held territory (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965). Maytorena saw the need to add five and ten centavos notes to the provisional issue. Decree núm. 40 of 12 February 1914 authorised a series comprised of 100,000 five centavos notes and 50,000 ten centavosPeriódico Oficial, 13 February 1914. Carranza gave his authority for this issue on 2 March 1914AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2993, letter from Rafael Zubarán Capmany to Maytorena. These notes were based, in design, on the higher-value Estado de Sonora notes and had the printed signatures of Maytorena as Governor, Randall as Treasurer General and Emilio Cespedes as First Official (E. O. P. E. de la S.).
|José María Maytorena: Maytorena was born in Guaymas on 18 July 1867, the son of José María Maytorena Goycochea, a prominent hacendado. His family was allies of the Pesqueiras, another land-owning family that had broken with Díaz, and his father had long waged political warfare against Torres and Corral, the state’s caciques, and stood as an independent candidate for governor. He owned eight haciendas on which he employed large numbers of Yaquis (thus coming into conflict with the government over their persecution of these Indians), silver and copper mines, and property in Guaymas.
Maytorena had also borrowed up to 200,000 pesos from the banking and commercial concerns in Guaymas to modernise and increase his landholdings. The curtailment of credit from these sources forced him to sell a substantial part of his estate at unfavourable prices.
A political moderate, Maytorena had originally backed Bernardo Reyes and then Madero. In 1910 he organised the Junta Revolucionaria Mexicana in Nogales, Arizona and became one of Madero’s earliest disciples in Sonora, as he claimed, ‘to defend its sovereignty’. He was elected governor but on 22 February 1913, after Huerta seized the presidency, he left for a six-month sabbatical in the United States, returning on 4 August.
Maytorena was always at odds with Carranza and on 23 September 1914, counting on the support of Villa, he disowned Carranza. His faction fought against Elías Calles in Agua Prieta and Ángel Flores in Navojoa.
On 1 October 1915 Maytorena handed over the governorship to Carlos Randall and left for the United States.
He died on 18 January 1948.
|Carlos E. Randall: Born on 23 May 1860, Randall was the son of an English skipper who had lived in Guaymas since the middle of the century. He tried his hand at mining, at storekeeping and in various other businesses, and was obliged to spend ten years outside the state because of his opposition to the ruling clique. Maytorena and Randall started the first Club Reyista in Guaymas originally not as an anti-reelection movement but to support Reyes against Corral in the vice-presidential election. Randall was the club’s treasurer whilst Maytorena was president.
Randall accompanied Maytorena on his sabbatical to the United States. When they returned he supported Maytorena against Carranza and was named governor by Villa on 1 October 1915. On 26 November 1915 he left for the United States but returned in 1920.
He died in Tucson 1929.
|Emilio D. Cespedes: was Third Official in the Treasury in August 1913AGHGES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2984. The Second Official was Luis B. Cano who was covering as Interim Treasurer on 8 March 1913 and in September and October oversaw the printing of the Estado de Sonora notesAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2971. He took over as Oficial Mayor from Sánchez Azcona in [February] 1914AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2984 and handed over to Alberto Hugues on 16 July 1914.|
Varieties of Seals
These 100,000 5c notes, numbered 1 to 100000, and 50,000 10c notes, numbered 1 to 50000, were delivered on 25 February 1914AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2993.
The 5c has a Hand Seal (for varieties see Hand Seals) and the 10c has a Mountain Seal (for varieties see Mountain Seals) on the face, and both have 25mm Eagle Seals on the reverse. Robert Perigoe has identified the following Eagle Seals:
Background on reverse
Both the 5c and 10c notes have different types, distinguishable by the background on the reverse. This background, made of images of an x surrounded by four little circles, one of which is further from the centre than the other three, had been used on a series of Sonora postage stamps, first produced at Hermosillo in October 1914. Each of these stamps had a background of 30 pieces arranged in 6 rows of 5 elements each. On the notes the background is made up of 8 rows of 22 elements each (with spaces for the denomination and national seal).
|Type A||In all cases, the bottom circle is furthest from the centre of the cross|
|Type B||In the third row from top, second column from right, the left circle is furthest from the centre|
|Type C||In the top row, second column from left, the right circle is furthest from the centre|
|Type D||In the bottom row, seventh column from right, the right circle is furthest from the centre|
5c Estado de Sonora notes
|5c||1||A||None||Type 2||Type E|
10c Estado de Sonora notes
Further fractional notes
Obviously the shortage of small change continued to cause difficultiesOn 23 March 1915 the authorities in La Paz, Baja California reported that it was impossible to obtain fractional Estado de Sonora notes (from Hermosillo) in a short space of time. as decree núm. 70 of 16 April 1915 provided for an additional 100,000 pesos in ten series, labelled 1a to 10a, each of 100,000 five centavos notes and 50,000 ten centavosPeriódico Oficial, 20 April 1915. Series I was issued in April and May, whilst the Series II ten centavos notes were issued in July, in the following consignementsAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3024. On 14 May it was reported from Nogales that the new fractional notes of 5c, 10c and 20c (sic) had begun to circulate (Prensa, 16 May 1915):
Series III notes are known but may be remainders. These notes were to a new design and had the signatures of Maytorena as Governor, Alberto Hugues as Oficial Mayor (E. O. M. E. D. D.), Jesús Ramos as Interim Treasurer General and Enrique Astiazarán as Interventor.
|Alberto Hugues: Hugues was Oficial Mayor Encargado del Despacho to Interim Governor Padilla in January 1913 and named Inspector General de Aduanas on 11 September 1913AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965. He took over as Oficial Mayor from Cespedes on 16 July 1914AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2984. He was Secretario General de Gobierno in March 1915.|
|Jesús Ramos: took over from Randall in [ ]. He was Interim Treasurer General by 21 April 1915.|
|Enrique Astiazarán: Like Randall, Astiazarán was a member of a petit bourgeois family from Guaymas. He was appointed by Sotomayor as Interventor on 24 September 1914AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2993.|