The private issue from Coahuila mainly come from the prosperous región of the Comarca Lagunera around Torreón and either from the period when communications with the rest of the country were disrupted (late 1913 to early 1914) or late 1915. Many are from haciendas and would have been used to pay the workers when currency was unobtainable.
On 28 September 1915 Alvaro Obregón wrote to Carranza in Veracruz from San Pedro de las Colonias, asking him to send one, two and five pesos notes to relieve the lack of change. A group of hacendados had complained about the difficulties caused by the lack of funds and suppression of the Villista currency. Obregón had lent them $250,000 to make their payrolls but felt four million pesos would be needed for the whole of the Comarca. The next day Carranza replied that he had already sent $1,500,000 and would send more. In the meantime Obregón could authorize solvent local hacendados to issue bonos for the amount that he mentionedABarragán, caja III, exp. 28.
Given the close connection between Torreón and Lerdo and the city of Gómez Palacio, across the state border in Durango, these notes should be studied alongside the private issues of that other state.
Two values, dated March and May 1914, are known. On the reverse of the 25c note is an illegible seal, embossed city and state name and the hand signature of J. MartínezRichard A Long, Mail Auction Sale, July 28, 1975.
José E. González
A 25c note dated 1 March 1914. This could well be a municipal issue, with José E. González the[ ] and the building [ ].
Sierra del Perdido
Rancho "El Salvador"
A nontransferable token for 10c, issued by the “El Salvador” sotol ranch that could be exchanged for goods or cash in the casa Paulino Decannini.
Sotol is the Spanish name for the Desert Spoon, a plant that grows in northern Mexico, New Mexico and west Texas and is used to produce a distilled spirit, also called sotol, in a similar manner to the more common mezcals. Sotol was a popular drink amongst ranchers and miners. The first viñata (vineyard) de sotol was established in Parras de la Fuente in 1908.
The senior Paulino Decannini was born in Lucca, Italy in 1868. He worked in Coahuila as accountant for the Compañía Minera Peñoles, and married Angelina Flores Serna, with whom he had seven childrenPaulino, Cesar, Oscar, Dante, Horacio, Angelina and Urania including another Paulino. He died in 1940.
Mina “La Encantada”
This is a cheque, made out to the bearer, for $10, dated 3 May 1913.
These typewritten notes, to the bearer and at sight, were issued by Ivan Ragas (or Ragaz) in mid 1913. The $5 note is dated 10 June 1913 and the $10 31 May 1913.
All these are signed by Paul Sieger.
On 12 November 1913 the Mexican Herald reported that the stores in Torreón were open and doing business as well as could be expected under the trying circumstances that prevailed there, and that in the cotton plantations in the Laguna district picking was going on though, as the planters would not be able to market their cotton, they would be obliged to store it until the railroads re-opened. The greatest difficulty that the merchants and planters had to contend with was the scarcity of money. The rebels had not issued any fiat money, as they had done in Durango, but a number of the large planters were paying their employees in vales, which were accepted by the merchants of Torreón and surrounding towns. When a merchant had accumulated a number of these vales, amounting to about $100, he turned them over to the planter who had issued them and received a draft for the amount. The plan, so far, was worked well with the vales passing as currency and not being discountedThe Mexican Herald, 19th year, no. 6647, 12 November 1913.
In late February 1914 the Jefe Politico of Torreón, Silvestre Dorador, prohibited companies from issuing paper money or tarjetas de valor. He gave them 15 days to withdraw or issues or face punishment under the law¡Patria Libre!, Tomo II, Núm. 20, 17 February 1914. Ironically, Dorador was a printer and so might have produced some of these vales.
The hacienda “La Concha” was the oldest ranch in Torreón, owned by Carlos González. It was one of the haciendas confiscated by the Villista authorities who needed the revenue generated by cotton to pay for their administration. In 29 October 1914 Lázaro de la Garza was nominally in charge but he wrote to Villa asking him to nominate someone else as administrator as de la Garza had too much else on his handsLG papers, 1-I-18: Letter from L. de la Garza, Chihuahua, to Villa, Zacatecas. 29 October 1914.
Manuel de la Fuente y Cia.
Manuel de la Fuente y Cia leased the Hacienda de Hornos, in the municipality of Viesca, just outside Torreón, from 1904. These 50c and $1 vales were to be redeemed in banknotes, cheques or giros in the firm’s offices at Avenida Matamoros 421, Torreón.
Casino de la Laguna
On 9 December 1907 a newly-formed company, Casino de la Laguna S.A., agreed to buy the land for the construction of a casino from the local council, and it was opened on 15 September 1910, during the celebrations for the centenary of Mexican independence. It was the site of the meeting in October 1913 when the victorious Villa demanded a forced loan from the principal businesses
Agricultores de la Comarca Lagunera
In October 1915 the Secretaría de Hacienda, with Carranza’s agreement, authorized the main merchants and harvesters of Torreón to issue vales for fifteen million pesos, guaranteed with the product of their crops, whose value was estimated at thirty million pesos. This was done to obviate the difficult economic conditions in which the Comarca Lagunera found itselfEl Pueblo, Veracruz, 9 October 1915.
According to its text this $5 bono was issued in October 1915 by the Comisión named by the local growers, in accordance with an authorization from the Cuartel General of the Ejército Constitucionalista.
The Continental Mexican Rubber Company
On 24 January 1916 the Continental Mexican Rubber Company asked Ramón Méndez, the Presidente Municipal, for permission to issue a series of cartoncillos. This was agreed on the following conditions:
(1) there should be no more that $25 to $30 a week, redeemable within fifteen days and solely for use within the company
(2) Any worker could redeem them in quantities of one peso or more. Redemption would be in legal tenderAMTor, Copiador de Presidencia Municipal 2, pagina 32.
Hacienda de Andalucia
A $1 note for the Hacienda de Andalucia (propiedad de Ruffino Torre) id listed, but not illustrated in catalogues.
Federico Ritter was born in Lerdo on 23 Mayo 1880 and was a businessman ( he was an agent for the Banco Nacional de México in Lerdo) and hacendado.
The 50c note has a blue seal on the reverse with a date in October 1913 and the name HDA DE BOLIVAR, COAHRichard A Long, Mail Auction Sale, July 28, 1975. The low value vales, like those issued by other haciendas, were redeemable in banknotes for $5 or in giros for larger amounts. The $5 notes were redeemable in cheque or giros for amounts of $100 or above, as mentioned in the Mexican Herald articleThe Mexican Herald, 19th year, no. 6647, 12 November 1913.
This issue was specifically referred to in a query from the Jefe Político of Cuencamé, Durango, on 10 February 1914. The Jefe Político was told by the state government that the issue was not of forced circulation and that it was discussing the matter with the state of CoahuilaADur, Fondo Secretaría General de Gobierno (Siglo XX), Sección 6 Gobierno, Serie 6.1 Acuerdos, caja 1, nombre 3 letter Martín Martínez, Jefe Político, Cuencamé to Secretario de Gobierno, Durango, 10 February 1914. It was also mentioned in a Mexico City news article on 8 April 1914El Imparcial, Tomo XXXV, Núm. 6410, 8 April 1914.
[ ]bros Menores
Francisco Ignacio Madero, the future revolutionary, was born into an extremely wealthy landowning family in Parras de la Fuente, Coahuila and in 1893, at the age of twenty, assumed the management of the Madero family's hacienda at San Pedro, Coahuila. These notes were issued by his casa comercial.
This issue was also specifically referred to in a query from the Jefe Político of Cuencamé, Durango, on 10 February 1914. The Jefe Político was told by the state government that the issue was not of forced circulation and that it was discussing the matter with the state of CoahuilaADur, Fondo Secretaría General de Gobierno (Siglo XX), Sección 6 Gobierno, Serie 6.1 Acuerdos, caja 1, nombre 3 letter Martín Martínez, Jefe Político, Cuencamé to Secretario de Gobierno, Durango, 10 February 1914.
Hacienda “El Sacramento y Anexas”
This was issued because of a shortage of small change and would be redeemed when communications were reestablished with Mexico City.
Comisión de Agrícola de San Pedro
A provisional vale for $1, dated 9 October 1915, to be redeemed in current Constitutionalist money, in accordance with a military accord of 5 October 1915, signed by Pedro J. Hernández and Luis de la O. This is a companion note to the Torreón one above.
The Compañía Industrial de Parras and the Compañía Explotadora de Parras, which ran a plant for processing guayule (a plant that produces a type of rubber), were owned by the Madero family, having been founded by Francisco’s grandfather, Evaristo.
These notes were authorised by the Comandancia Militar in Torreón.
Ernesto Madero y Hermanos
Ernesto Madero was Francisco's brother.