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Revalidations on Gobierno Provisional notes (Michoacán - Zacatecas)


On 1 January 1915 Aurelio Castañón, the Jefe de Hacienda, reported that, in accordance with the 17 December decree, his Jefatura had been designated by the Tesorería de la Federación for the exchange of Gobierno Provisional notes, which would take place until 6 JanuaryPeriódico Oficial, Michocán, 3 January 1915. This period was extended on 6 January for another two weeksPeriódico Oficial, Michocán, 10 January 1915.

On 19 January the Secretario General told the Prefectos of the state that the $1 notes (Series A) up to number 999999 were good while higher numbers, though unacknowleged, could circulate. $5 notes were null, unless they were revalidatedAMMor, caja 29, exp. 114. However, on 22 January 1915 the Governor told the Prefectos that the $5 Gobierno Provisional notes (Series B) were of forced circulationAMMor, caja 29, exp. 61.

On 4 March governor José I. Prieto issued a decree listing the notes of forced circulation, including Gobierno Provisional notes that had been revalidated. A week later, on 10 March, he added to his last decree, listing the seral numbers of the valid Gobierno Provisional notes and stating that they could be revalidated in the Oficina de la Pagaduría General de la Jefatura de Operaciones from 15 March until 15 April by means of a stamp placed on the reverse of the note. In the other districts the notes should be presented to the Oficina Rentística in each district capital.

GPM 1 OP Michoacan 1

OP Michoacan

'CUERPO DE EJERCITO DEL NORTE / PAGADURIA GENERAL / DE LA COLUMNA DE [     ] / 15 MARZ 1915 / signature / MICHOACAN'. The signature is of [                            ][identification needed].

GPM 1 OP Michoacan 2

'ESTADO DE MICHOACAN, / REVALIDADO / conforme al Decreto 10 de Marzo de 1915'

Although this revalidation refers to the 10 March decree it is applied to the face of the note.


GPM 1 OP Zamora

OP Zamora

a circular seal with 'AGENCIA DEL TIMBRE - ZAMORA, MICH.' and REVALIDADO POR ACUERDO / DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE / HACIENDA / Zamora   de 1915 and signatures of Manuel Martínez Gracida and [                        ][identification needed] on reverse.

Martinez GracidaManuel Martínez Gracida was born on 24 April 1847 in Ejutla, Oaxaca. In 1862, he was sent to study at the Central School of the state capital, linked to the Institute of Sciences and Arts. a focus of the liberal party and important hotbed of the Oaxacan political elite. Having completed his studies he sought employment as a scribe (escribano), a well-known profession. During the French intervention and the occupation of the city of Oaxaca, he did not collaborate in the conservative administration and enrolled in the Institute of Sciences and Arts, taking the arts course. Even before finishing, in 1867 with the defeat of the French he rejoined the public administration and served as a statistician. In 1881 he was an Oficial Mayor in the government of Porfirio Díaz, with whom he always maintained a great friendship.

After working in the local postal administration, he moved to Mexico City; working in the General Directorate of Statistics. On his return to Oaxaca, in 1888 he began his work as a biographer of various Oaxacan characters, drawing up genealogies of the main families.

He was elected Deputy for Tehuantepec on 14 July 1895 but then went back to work in Mexico City in charge of the General Directorate of Statistics. On 5 December 1906 Porfirio Díaz appointed him Administrator del Timbre in Guadalajara. From the Administración del Timbre in Guadalajara he went to that of Zamora, Michoacán, with the same position, but, after the fall of Porfirio Díaz and the death of Madero, his life changed, he became unemployed and could not return to his homeland. He was shocked first, with the abduction of his daughter Lucrecia at the hands of the revolutionaries, and, in 1914, with the death of his son Luis, at the hands of General Manuel M. Diéguez after an altercation with Colonel Damy’s General Staff.

With what he earned in his positions in the public administration, he could have lived comfortably at the end of his life, but he ended up in poverty. He spent his salary on the realization of his historical work and he ended up in Mexico City working in a modest position in the National Museum, with a very low salary. He died on 5 February 1924.

Throughout his life, Martínez Graciada was a diligent researcher and writer who wrote a great number of work, one of the most important being “Los indios oaxaqueños y sus monumentos arqueológicos”.

GPM sig OP unknown 1
  GPM sig OP unknown 2


'Administración de Rentas, Uruapan'

Nuevo León

On 25 February 1915, Raul Madero, governor of Nuevo León, in his decree núm. 3, ordered that all Gobierno Provisional notes should be revalidated in the Administración Principal de Timbre with a red inscription “Revalidado por orden del Departamento de Hacienda” and the signatures of the Administrador and Contador. Holders had until 15 March to complyPeriódico Oficial, Nuevo León, 5 March 1915.

However, following Villa's disowning of Carranza, on 13 March Madero, in his decree núm. 5, withdrew unrevalidated Gobierno Provisional notes, giving holders ten days to exchange them for Chihuahua notes. Revalidated notes continued to be of forced circulation.


On 1 March 1915 the provisional governor of Querétaro, Gustavo M. Bravo, asked Villa’s Secretaría de Hacienda in Chihuahua for authorisation to revalidate the Gobierno Provisional de México notes since, because of the difficulties in communications, there were many notes without a resello in the city. Chihuahua agreed that they could revalidate notes during the month of MarchAQ, Fondo Poder Ejecutivo Sec 2ª Hacienda C-1 Año 1915 Exp. 142.

The same day the Administrador Principal, R. Martínez, wrote to the governor that the Departamento de Hacienda (in Chihuahua) had told him that the Gobierno Provisional de México notes should be revalidated with a stamp stating “Revalidado por acuerdo del Departamento de Hacienda” with the date, and his and the contador’s signature, all in red inkAQ, Fondo Poder Ejecutivo Sec 2ª Hacienda C-1 Año 1915 Exp. 144.

GPM 5 OP Queretaro

GPM 1 OP Queretaro

'REVALIDADO / Por Acuerdo del Departamento de Hacienda, / Querétaro             de 1915 / EL CONTADOR   EL ADMOR. PRAL' with the signatures of   [                     ][identification needed] as Contador and R. Martínez as Administrador Principal on the face and a red circular seal with 'ADMINISTRACION PRINCIPAL DEL TIMBRE - QUERETARO' on the reverse.

R. Martínez GPM sig Martinez
  GPM sig Queretaro contador


However, on 16 March 1915 the Departamento de Hacienda y Fomento in Chihuahua wrote instructing offices to change current issues(billetes provisionales) for Estado de Chihuahua notes as the state of their funds permitted and meanwhile to suspend the revalidation of Gobierno Provisional notesAQ, Fondo Poder Ejecutivo Sec 2ª Hacienda C-1 Año 1915 Exp. 139 telegram Escudero, Chihuahua 16 March1915; acknowledged by Martínez (AQ, Fondo Poder Ejecutivo Sec 2ª Hacienda C-1 Año 1915 Exp. 142) and copied to Administradores Principales del Timbre on 18 March(AQ, Fondo Poder Ejecutivo Sec 2ª Hacienda C-1 Año 1915 Exp. 139) so this revalidation appears shortlived.

San Luis Potosí

The 17 December decree was published in San Luis Potosí on 29 DecemberPeriódico Oficial, San Luis Potosí, 29 December 1914.

GPM 5 B 375198 reverse

This blue circular (43.5mm) rubber stamp with the legend ‘PREFECTURA REGIONAL DEL PARTIDO DE LA CAPITAL - SAN LUIS POTOSI’ and an eagle in the centre, together with a three-line inscription ‘Este Billete es de circulacion forzosa. S.L.P.....1915 E.P.R’ and the stamped signature of J. Rangel was also used on the sabánas and so probably predated the general revalidation.

GPM 5 B 225410

GPM 5 B 225410 reverse

 'REVALIDADO / por orden del Departamento de Hacienda /  El Admor. Pral. del Timbre  El Contador' with signatures of [                            ][identification needed] as Administrador Principal and  [                            ][identification needed] as Contador with a circular red seal 'ADMON. PRINCIPAL DEL TIMBRE - S. LUIS POTOSI'. This notes also has the previously listed revalidation on the reverse.


'Revalidado por orden del Departamento de Hacienda / San Luis Potosí, Febrero de 1915. / El Admor. Pral. del Timbre  El Contador' with signatures of [                            ][identification needed] as Administrador Principal and  [                            ][identification needed] as Contador with an oval stamp with 'ADMON. PRAL. DEL TIMBRE - SAN LUIS POTOSI' and date.

  GPM sig SLP 2
  sig SLP contador
  GPM sig SLP 1


On 17 March 1915 the government issued its circular núm. 10 stating that it had been told by the Departamento de Hacienda in Chihuahua to exchange Gobierno Provisional with Chihuahua notes, as far as their resources allowed, and in the meantime to suspend the revalidation of the Gobierno Provisional notes ASLP, Ayuntamiento 1915.14.


On 25 September F. A. Borquez, the Jefe de Hacienda in Sonora told the public that the notes, whether or not they had been revalidated, were of forced circulation, since his Jefatura had not received funds to exchange themBoletín Oficial, Tomo I, Num 3, 27 September 1915.





'Admon. Subalterna del Timbre, Papatla'


GPM 1 OP Tuxpan

OP Tuxpan

A violet circular seal with 'AGENCIA DEL TIMBRE - TUXPAN, 9o CANTON, L. DE [    ]'


On 14 January 1915 the Jefe de Hacienda, Teodoro Carrillo, said that they were beginning to exchange the notes. For quantities greater than $100 the exchange would be made in the Jefatura de Hacienda and for smaller sums in the Adminstración de TimbreSiglo XX, Zacatecas, Núm. 52, 14 January 1915.

Unknown origin

GPM 5 OP Revalidado 3

OP Revalidado 3

'Revalidado por orden del / Departamento de Hacienda / E[l] A[dminisrador] P[rincipal] I[nterino].'

[                                  ]

GPM 5 B 840170 reverse

A blue circular seal with [                                         ]CNBanxico #2698.

[                                  ]

GPM 5 B 853524 reverse

[    ] DEL TIMBRE - [             ]CNBanxico #2713.

[                                  ]

GPM 5 B 178645 reverse

AGENCIA DEL TIMBRE - [              ]CNBanxico #2719.

Other stamps

Finally, it should be mention that other overprints might have been applied just in the course of business, such as this oval overprint from a concern in Guadalajara.

GPM 1 OP Guadalajara oval

OP Guadalajara oval