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Private issues

Private revolutionary issues are usually divided into hacienda or commercial issues.

There are a few similarities in design which probably means the same printer though there are limits to how differently one can express issuer, location, value and legend.

Some designate themselves as vales provisionales (Florentino Fernández, of Jacona, Joaquin Moreno and Ramón C. García of Purépero). One is en efectivo (La Confianza, Huiramba whilst others are en infalsificables (El Pabellón Mexicano of La Piedad, Daniel Robles of La Palma, Empresa de Desague de la Laguna de la Magdalena, of Tacátzcuaro, Fernández y Cía., Hurtado y Cía. and La Camelia, all of Uruapan and El Comercio de Zamora) which date them to late 1915 or 1916.

A few do in fact have a printed date, ranging from 8 March 1915 (Francisco Rodríguez, of Tinguindín) to 7 July 1916 (La Camelia, Uruapan) The dates on handstamps range from 20 December 1914 (Victor Barajas, Taximaroa) to 2 November 1915 (Eliseo C. Melgoza, of Purépero) with an outlier of 10 August 1919 (Haciendas de Pedernales y Chupio, Tacámbaro).

Several issue, particularly from Uruapan, state that they are of Admisión (or Circulación) Voluntaria – a qualification no doubt insisted upon by the local authorities and so indicating some governmental approval. These were El Negro, La Victoria, Bejarano y Alvarez, Hotel San Francisco, and La Primavera, all from Uruapan, El Cambio Mercantil, of Parácuaro, José María Carranza, of Tinguindín, Gerardo G. Martinez, of Zacán and Tamayo & García, of Zamora. However, the later Comerciantes de Uruapan was of Circulación forzosa.

A few specifically state that they were issued to make change (Servicio de Cambio). These were Tamayo & García and Las Haciendas de Cerrito y Rinconada in Zamora.