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Various Constitucionalist military issues

Guerrero ejercitoJulián Blanco was among the first to take military action against Porfirio Diaz’s government, attacking the military quarters in Chilpancingo, capital of Guerrero, in April 1911. Blanco served in President Madero’s forces and successfully undertook various military campaigns against Emiliano Zapata’s army. After Madero´s assassination on 9 February 1913 Blanco´s troops tried again to occupy Chilpancingo but were pushed back.

By 24 March 1914 Blanco was serving in Carranza’s Constitutionalist Army and he allied himself with the Zapatista Generals Jesús H. Salgado and Heliodoro Castillo in their campaign to take over Chilpancingo from the Federal troops of General Silvestre G. Mariscal.  Mariscal’s group soon joined Carranza’s Constitutionalist Army.

On Huerta’s renouncement the disagreements between the Carrancistas and Zapatistas flared again.

On 28 March General Salgado was appointed Director of the Provisional Government of Guerrero. In July Carranza appointed Salgado the Provisional Governor but after learning that his loyalty was to the Zapatistas he cancelled the appointment. On 26 December Carranza appointed Blanco Provisional Governor and his troops embarked upon an intense military campaign against the Zapatista army. On 31 December Chilpancingo was finally overcome and the Zapatista occupiers driven out.

Ejército Constitucionalista del Sur notes

At the beginning of 1915 the Constitutionalists issued a series of cartones. The notes are known in a variety of colours, with the serial number either handwritten or printed, and with General Canuto J. Neri’s signature or his handstamped name on the reverse.

E Constitucionalista 10c

E Constitucionalista 10c reverse

E Constitucionalista 25c 863

E Constitucionalista 25c 863 reverse

E Constitucionalista 50c 2616

E Constitucionalista 50c 2616 reverse

  date on note from to total
5c             includes numbers 1506 to 1535
25c             includes number 863
50c           stamped number  includes number 430
          handwritten number includes number 2656
$1           handwritten number includes numbers 694 to 745
7 January 1915         stamped number includes numbers 2953CNBanxico #11103 to 3528
          includes number 4187CNBanxico #4303 to 7508CNBanxico #4299
10 January 1915         includes numbers 9605CNBanxico #4297 to 9644CNBanxico #4298


 Canuto J. Neri sig Neri


On 5 June 1915 Governor Blanco travelled to Veracruz where he informed Carranza of his displeasure at the appointment of General Mariscal as chief of the military operations in Guerrero, as Mariscal was building up his forces and undermining Blanco’s power. On 4 August, after his return to Acapulco, Blanco was out riding near General Mariscal’s military quarters when his horse and himself were shot by a Mariscal captain. The wounded Blanco managed to get to his headquarters where he ordered Colonel Simon Díaz to attack Mariscal’s troops. However, Díaz had been bribed and stayed neutral, and Mariscal, instead, attacked Blanco’s troops and forced Blanco and his son, General Bonificio Blanco, to surrender unconditionally. Blanco’s officers and some 50 additional soldiers were shot. Blanco and his son and General Canuto J. Neri were all executed on 6 August. Mariscal explained his actions by claiming that Blanco was going to betray Carranza to Zapata, had killed his own son and then committed suicide.

After Neri’s execution some 30 Mariscal soldiers stole his funds.


On 24 March 1915 General Brigadier Mariano Barrios wrote to Carranza from Acapulco. He had come to pick up the supplies that were being sent in the gunboat Guerrero but had received only $2,000, not enough to meet what he owed to his troops, so he asked for permission to issue $50,000 as a temporary measure (bonos provisionales) to circulate until he received the necessary fundsCEHM, Fondo XXI-4 telegram General Brigadier Mariano Barrios, Acapulco to Venustiano Carranza, Veracruz, 24 March 1915.

If Barrios issued any notes, what were they?


Ejercito Constitucionalista

  date on note series from to total
$1 16 October 1915 A         includes number 424[  ](?)



Quinta Brigada

This unit was the fifth brigade of the fifth division of the Army of the Northwest (Cuerpo de Ejército del Noroeste). In June 1916 this 5a Brigada issued a a set of cartones (25c[image needed], 50c and $1) for local use.

  date on note Series from to total
25c 6 June 1916            
50c 1 June 1916 A         includes numbers 3045 to 36738CNBanxico #11105
$1 6 June 1916 B         includes numbers 3688CNBanxico #4228 to 45161CNBanxico #4308


On the face they read ‘Ejército Constitucionalista. Cuerpo de E. del Noroeste. 5a DIVISION. 5a BRIGADA.50 cts.’ and on the reverse ‘Emisión con valor local. Este Vale será canjeable por Billete Provisional de Veracruz. Iguala, Gro., ....'. So these are obviously issued to address a local shortage of tostones and $1 Veracruz notes. 

A couple of weeks later a new issue was changeable for infalsificables.

  Series from to total
50c D         includes number 21917


On the face of the 50c it now read ‘Ejército Constitucionalista. Cuerpo de E. del Noroeste. 5a DIVISION. 5a BRIGADA. Núm.        Serie D.’ and on the reverse ‘Vale Local. Cincuenta centavos En Billete infalsificable Igual, Gro., Junio 19 de 1916’.


Ejército Constitucionalista

A similiar issue of three(?) values (25c, 50c[image needed] and $1[image needed]) was made in Taxco, dated 1 July 1916.

5a Division 50c

5a Brigada

Gaytan lists these as one sequence, from Taxco, but they are quite disparate. The 25c is payable in infalsificables while the 50c. in Veracruz notes, is obviously earlier. The $1 is similar to the Iguala notes above.


Jefatura de Armas

Aldama 50c

Aldama 50c reverse

Aldama 1

Aldama 1 reverse

  from to total
50c         includes number 1733CNBanxico #11093
$1         includes numbers 20929CNBanxico #11094 to 298919CNBanxico #41789