Francisco Villa wrote to Lázaro de la Garza, of the Comisión de Hacienda de la División del Norte, on 25 October 1913 about difficulties with the banks and businesses over paper currency, demanding that they send him money or he would resort to forceLG papers, 1-A-7 letter núm. 326 from Villa, Ciudad Camargo, to de la Garza, Torreón, 25 October 1913. De la Garza replied that because of the need for hard currency to pay the troops the Comisión had agreed on a new forced loan on banking, industry and commerce to be paid in gold, silver or banknotes (billetes de antigua circulación) which would be exchanged for the local paper currency paper that Villa returned to him. He added a footnote that he felt that they had already made a superhuman effort, given the lack of money in the ComarcaLG papers, 1-A-14, telegram de la Garza, Torreón, to Villa, Ciudad Camargo. 27 October 1913.Villa approved because he was desperate for money to pay his troopsLG papers, 1-A-8, telegram Villa, Santa Rosalia, to de la Garza, Torreón. 27 October 1913.
Against this background the Comisión de Hacienda issued its own notes, dated 20 November 1913.
|5c||includes number 705|
|50c||includes numbers 935CNBanxico #120 to 5524|
|$1||includes numbers 1083CNBanxico #121 to 5613CNBanxico #122|
On the face these read "EJERCITO CONSTITUCIONALISTA COMISION DE HACIENDA DIVISION DEL NORTE. TORRON, COAH., MEXICO." and on the reverse “Al presentarse a esta Comisión estas boletas con valor en junto de $5.00 o sus múltiples, serán inmediatamente cambiadas por cheques de Banco a Banco. Se tiene en depósito siempre el valor que representan estas boletas y no tienen más objeto que facilitar el cambio. OFICINA AV. JUAREZ No 1220 (CASINO) ABIERTA DE 9 A 12 A M. Torreón, Coah., Noviembre 20 de 1913” with the seal of the Presidencia MunicipalOn 1 December 1913 Dr. Adolfo Mondragon Bouckhardt, the presidente municipal of Torreón, wrote to the Comisión de Hacienda asking (if it was not inconvenient) to send the Presidencia the stamp (sello marcador) to stamp the paper money that the Tesorería Municipal was going to issue (LG papers, 3-B-59: letter Presidente Municipal, Torreón, to Comisión de Hacienda, Torreón. 1 December 1913). and impression of a seal. So these werre issued by the Comisión to address the shortage of small change because the bank-on-bank cheques in circulation were for one peso or more.
Founded on 22 April 1899, the Casino de La Laguna, on the main plaza, was a meeting place where the topics of politics and social issues directly affecting the residents of the City were discussed and debated. It was where the leading businesses in the city met with Villa's representatives to discuss forced loans and the bank-on-bank cheques.
Though a limited issue, this was acknowledged in the Convention's list of notes of forced circulation in January 1915.
There was a single 50c Ejército Constitucionalista de Torreón note in the municipal treasury of Monclova, Coahuila on 5 April 1915AMMon, Fondo Presidencia Municipal, caja 414, Libro copiador de oficios, pag. 138.
Because of the need to pay their troops and obtain supplies various Constitutionalist commanders resorted to issuing vales in lower denominations.
Brigada Guadalupe Victoria
At the beginning of January 1914 it was reported that because of the trouble that the Brigada Guadalupe Victoria was having in paying its cost, it has been decided to issue notes (bonos) for $1,000,000¡Patria Libre!, Durango, Tomo II, Núm. 4, 10 January 1914.
By March the Brigada had moved on to Sombrerete, where they were lacking food due to the non-acceptance of Constitutionalist bonos¡Patria Libre!, 5 March 1914 .
Primera División de Caballería
These $1 notes are signed by M. M. Acosta as General en Jefe and [ ][identification needed] as Pagador General.
Miguel M. Acosta Guajardo was born in Chihuahua on 16 September 1891. He took part in Madero’s uprising and then in 1912 fought against the Orozquistas in the states of Durango, Coahuila and Zacatecas. He became a Mayor de caballería in February 1913 when he supported Carranza’s rebellion, was captured by the Federals whilst blowing up railway lines in San Luis Potosí but later escaped and joined Carranza in Hermosillo, Sonora.
Carranza placed him under the direct command of General Lucio Blanco in Alvaro Obregón’s Ejército del Noroeste, and he fought with this corps from 15 November 1913 until 14 November 1914. As a Teniente Coronel de caballería, he took part in the capture of Sinaloa and Tepic, taking Acaponeta on 5 May and Tepic on 15 May. In June 1914 he took command of the División de Caballería of the Ejército del Noroeste and began the advance on Jalisco.
He subsequently had a long and successful military career.
The legend ‘Constitución y Reformas’ date these notes to after 14 February 1914, the date of Carranza's decree núm. 20 establishing this phraseology.
These notes were printed by the local firm, Tipografia El Aguila. On the face they read "Ejército Constitucionalista. EL PRESENTE ES VALIDO AL PORTADOR POR á la vista pagadero en la JEFATURA DE ARMAS. Parras, Coahuila, Abril 30 de 1914" and have the signature of Roberto [ ][identification needed].
The $5 was in a slightly different type.
There was a single $1 Ejército Constitucionalista de Parras note in the municipal treasury of Monclova, Coahuila on 5 April 1915AMMon, Fondo Presidencia Municipal, caja 414, Libro copiador de oficios, pag. 138.
|10c||C||includes number 317|
|20c||B||includes number 2895|
A series of notes were issued in Muzquiz. Known values are 10c, 20c and 50c. On the face they state “Reembolsables por la Jefatura de Armas de esta Plaza. MUZQUIZ, MAYO 18 DE 1914. EL MAYOR JEFE DE LAS ARMAS. M. S. González.” and on the reverse “La presente nota será de circulación transitoria estrictamente local. Su valor representado será satisfecho a la vista en billetes emitidos por el Gobierno Constitucionalista.” so these were a temporary measure.
|[if same person] Miguel S. González was born in Coahuila in 1870. On Madero’s assassination he joined Villa’s División del Norte and took part in the taking of Torreón at the front of the Brigada “Guadalupe Victoria”.|