Cristeros bonds

These are not paper currency but included as they currently appear in the main catalogues.

The Cristero Rebellion (1926–29) was a widespread struggle in many central-western Mexican states against the secularist, anti-Catholic and anti-clerical policies of the Mexican government. The rebellion was set off by enactment under President Calles of a statute to enforce the anti-clerical articles of the Mexican Constitution of 1917.

The Liga Nacional Defensora de la Libertad Religiosa  (LNDLR) (National League for the Defense of Religious Liberty) was a religious civil rights organization formed in March 1925 that played a crucial role in the Cristero Rebellion. The League had by June of its founding year about 36,000 members and chapters in almost every state of the country.

The LNDLR, along with the Catholic hierarchy, initially advocated peaceful resistance to the Calles Laws including a boycott of tax payment and nonessential goods and a petition drive to rescind the offending constitutional provisions. When the Church failed to obtain a compromise from Calles, the Mexican hierarchy ordered the priests to go on strike beginning 31 July 1926, the day the Calles Law was to go into effect.

Delegación Regional en el Estado de Nuevo León

Liga 10c

Liga 10c reverse

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10c         includes number 1856

 

This is a issue from Monterrey, Nuevo León, agreed by the Executive Commitee (circular num. 2-B[text needed] of 27 November 1926),  dated 15 December 1926 and signed by the regional delegate, Jesús M. Leal.

Jesús M. Leal was president of the Unión Arquidiocesana of the Asociación Católica de la Juventud Mejicana in Monterrey and a regional delegate to the Liga though he resigned in October 1925 to pay more attention to the Asociación Católica. However, at a meeting in July 1926 he assumed the leadership of the Delegación Regional of the Liga and in a little time the group had ten thousand supporters who made the Liga’s economic boycott a success in the state.  sig Leal

 

Soon after the clerical strike began sporadic popular uprisings began and beginning in September 1926 the LNDLR began to discuss revolt, but they maintained the policy of boycott. As the popular uprisings continued, especially in Jalisco and Colima, despite the lack of formal support from the bishops, the LNDLR advocated, on 1 January 1927, open rebellion to overthrow the regime and institute a new constitution with guarantees of religious freedom.

In 1927, the LNDLR reorganized the rebellion in the west and, in August 1928, gave the rebellion its first military leader, the well experienced General Enrique Gorostieta. The Cristeros began to engage in large scale military assaults.

Liga Nacional Defensora de la Libertad Religiosa bonds

In 1927 the LNDLR issued bonds, in the values of 20c, 50c, $1, $5 and $10 to raise funds.

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20c         includes numbers 005966 to 277526
$1         includes number 040272
$5          
$10          
$50         includes number 034

 

These are signed by José Tello, which was the alias of José González Pacheco.

José González Pacheco (José Tello) worked during all of the conflict in Mexico City as a government functionary and at the same time was vice-president, secretary in charge of propaganda, of the press and of finances of the LNDLR.  

 

They must have been distributed in the regions controlled by the Cristeros forces, mostly in Mexico City and perhaps in the Guadalajara region even though in that city the Control Militar de Occidente operated. This depended on the League in Mexico City but had many problems communicating with the directors in the capital.

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$25 A         includes number 000322

 

This refers to itself as a billete (but this merely means ticket) and states that it is not valid unless signed by the Jefe de la Sección de Hacienda de la Oficina Central and by the Tesorero de la Comisión de Control. Once one had accumulated enough billetes they could be exchanged for certificados nominales of $100, $500. $1,000 and $5,000.

The photograph is of Luis Navarro Origel who was considered the first Cristero to take up arms, on 29 September 1926, taking the city of Pénjamo, Guanajuato, where he was mayor (alcalde), wiping out the local defense force and seizing arms. He died in combat on 9 August 1928.

Ejercito Nacional Libertador

The Control Militar also issued bonds in denominations of one, five and ten pesos. These were surely printed in Guadalajara, Jalisco because that is where the Control had its headquarters. During August 1927, Javier Heredia was its chief and during the first half of 1928, Bartolomeo Ontiveros signed the documents with the alias "J. Ma. Delgado". Bartolomeo was the owner of the tequila factory La Herradura. He went to Mexico City later as Chief of the Special Committee of the League in charge of the war.

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$1          
$5         includes numbers 006534 to 006537CNBanxico #11423
$10         includes number 000813CNBanxico #11424