Revalidations on Gobierno Provisional notes
After the break with Carranza Convention forces, basically the División del Norte, advanced from Aguascalientes and occupied the capital on 3 December 1914, with Villa and Zapata making a triumphal entrance three days later. Carranza withdrew to Veracruz.
In December 1914 the Conventionist President, Eulalio Gutiérrez, decreed Carranza's Gobierno Provisional issues worthless, and holders were given ten days to exchange them for notes of the same issue that had been overprinted with 'REVALIDADO - Por decreto de 17 de diciembre de 1914' on the reverse in red inkThese revalidated notes were to be issued by the Tesorería de la Federación in the capital and the Jefaturas de Hacienda and Administraciones Principales y Subalternas de la Rentas del Timbre elsewhere.
The period for revalidation was extended on 30 December and then on 23 January 1915 President Roque González Garza modified the 17 December decree and announced that the period for restamping or revalidating the notes was extended to 15 March. At the same time he decreed that to make the widespread Villista currency acceptable the Secretaría de Hacienda would also revalidate the sábanas.
On 12 February González Garza, from Cuernavaca, extended the period for revalidation for three months, during which the notes would continue to be of forced circulation, even if not revalidatedThe previous day, 11 February, General Emiliano Zapata from Iguala had informed the military commanders under his command (in Chilpancingo, Tixtla, Chilapa, Tlapa, Huamuxtitlán, Ayutla, Teloloápam, Taxco, Coyuca de Catalán, Atzcapozalco and Huitzuco (Colección revolución, caja 3, exp 48, folleto 2).
On 11 March González Garza and the Conventionists left Cuernavaca and re-entered Mexico City. The Convention immediately declared the Carranza currency which had been in forced circulation null and without value.
As stated, the time limit in the original decree of 17 December had been extended for three months from 12 February 1915, during which period notes continued to be of forced circulation even if they did not have the revalidation and on 11 May González Garza extended the period until 12 July. All this tended to defeat the object of the exercise.
The following revalidations are known.
On 26 January the authorities in Mexico City began the exchanging of notes for REVALIDADO sábanas and Gobierno Provisional, giving preference to the sábanas as they were causing the greatest difficulties and large crowds gathered outside the Pagaduría de las Escuelas Normales para Profesores, in Mexico City, to change or validate their notesEl Sol, 25 January 1915: La Convención, 26 January 1915. The Tesorero General de la Federación said the exchange would take place not only at that Pagaduría but also at other pagadurías oficiales in the capital and Federal DistrictEl Radical, 25 January 1915. However, Obregon’s forces arrived in Mexico City on 28 January and held it until 11 March.
When González Garza left for Cuernavaca on [ ], he left behind the revalidating machine.
After the Conventionists returned, on 22 March the new authorities began the revalidation and exchange of notes, at the counters of the Tesorería de la Federacion, on the north side of the central patio of the Palacio Nacional. The first window was for quantities greater than ten pesos, where one received a receipt to collect the notes again in 48 hours. At the other window, amounts under ten pesos were changed immediatelyMexican Herald, 23 March 1915. On 23 March more than two thousand people gathered at the offices to get their notes validatedEl Radical, 23 March 1915. However, the innumerable counterfeits delayed the work of the expertsEl Radical, 29 March 1915.
REVALIDADO / Por decreto de 17 de diciembre de 1914 and a red seal with REPUBLICA MEXICANA - SECRETARIA DE HACIENDA
REVALIDADO / Por decreto de 17 de diciembre de 1914
This revalidation was counterfeited.
Revalidado por Acuerdo del Departamento de Hacienda, Aguascalientes, Enero 1915
The decree of 17 December 1914 disowning Carranza and ordering the revalidation of the Gobierno Provisional notes, along with the subsequents clarifications of 17 and 22 December, were published in Aguascalientes on 28 December Periódico Oficial, Aguascalientes, Tomo I, Num. 2, 28 December 1914.
On 27 February 1915 Villa wrote from Guadalajara in response to an enquiry from the governor, Benito Díaz, listing the notes in forced circulation, including the Gobierno Provisional notes which, if they had not been revalidated, needed to be revalidated straightaway in the Oficinas del Timbre of the statePeriódico Oficial, Aguascalientes, Tomo I, Núm. 11, 6 March 1915. This reiterated the decree núm. 4 that he had issued in Guadalajara on 13 February.
The Departamento de Hacienda y Fomento of the Gobierno Convencionista authorised the Administradores Principales del Timbre to revalídate the Gobierno Provisional de México issue. A timelimit of 25 April 1915 was set for such revalidations. Some businesses received the corresponding sellos, including Antonio Ruffo, Miguel González e hijos, Sucs., León Yuen, República China, Carlos S. Carrillo, Aparicio Contreras, Quong Yuen y Cía., Gran fábrica de calzado y ropa, Felipe R. Cota, Manuel P. Estrada, La Sirena del Gofo, Aduana Marítima de La PazABCS, Gobernación, vol. 646, exp 16 Informe relativo al resello de billetes por comerciantes, 26 March 1915.
In Saltillo on 20 January 1915 the Jefe de Armas, Santiago Ramírez, included the Gobierno Provisional notes in a list of those of forced circulationPeriódico Oficial, Coahuila, Tomo XXIII, Núm. 47, 23 January 1915. On 2 February he informed the public that the Oficina reselladora de billetes has reopened and would stay open until 10 FebruaryPeriódico Oficial, Coahuila, Tomo XXIII, Núm. 50, 3 February 1915 but this seems to have been in connection with revalidating Chihuahua notesThe opening was later extended until 25 February (Periódico Oficial, Tomo XXIII, Núm. 55, 20 February 1915 and Núm. 56, 24 February 1915.
It was only on 5 March that D. Ramos, the Administrador Subalterna del Timbre in Saltillo stated that a department would be open from 8 March to revalidate the notes listed in the 17 December decree. The department would stay open until 31 MarchPeriódico Oficial, Coahuila, Tomo XXIII, Núm. 59, 6 March 1915 and Núm. 60, 10 March 1915.
The Presidente Municipal of Monclova wrote on 23 March that there were enough such notes in Monclova and asked whether people has to go to the capital or whether they would establish an office in his townAMonclova, Fondo Presidencia Municipal, caja 414, Libro copiador de oficios, pag. 121.
PAGADURIA GENERAL - TORREÓN, COAH. and the signatures of Pedro López Negrete and Romulo Rodríguez of the Comisión Revisadora
This resello is included here but it will not have been part of the general progam to revalidate the Gobierno Provisional notes but applied to a particular high-value note. It might be of interest that the resello does not include the usual legend 'Este Billete es de circulación forzosa por ser auténtico. LA COMISION REVISADORA' (as here).
Torreón, near the southwest border of Coahuila and separated from Gómez Palacio, Durango, by the Nazas river, was a vital junction throughout the revolution. Villa occupied Torreón in April 1914, driving the Federal troops and six to seven thousand Spaniards out of the city. The authorities in Torreón were already restamping Chihuahua notes by November 1914ADur, Sección de Hacienda p178, telegram of Governor Saravia of Durango to Villa, 17 November 1914. By March 1915 because of the overwhelming number of forgeries in circulation Villa set up an office under control of the Comandancia Militar de la Comarca to sort out the genuine from the counterfeit with dramatic effectsACoah, sección 31a, exp. 11735 correspondence between Governor and Comandante Militar Ramírez, Mayor Jefe de Estado Mayor Rodolfo Farías Flores and Francisco Escudero, Chihuahua, 6 March and 8 March 1915.
Torreón was retaken by the Carrancistas on 29 September 1915.
On 20 October the Presidente Municipal of Colima, Carlos G. Rosaldo, published a flyer that the period for depositing notes had been extended until the end of the monthAMCol, 61,exo. 3.
An oval stamp with 'ADMINISTRACION PRAL. DEL TIMBRE - CHIHUAHUA' and REVALIDADO / Por acuerdo del Departamento de Hacienda / Chihuahua febrero 27 de 1915 / El Admor. Pral. de Timbre El Contador and the signatures of Ed González as Administrador Principal and E Medrano as Contandor.
Because of the difficulties with communcations with the central government on 2 February 1915 Villa created three departments of state based in Chihuahua. On 17 February 1915 Francisco Escudero, in charge of the Departamento de Hacienda informed the public that they had until the end of the month to present their notes for revalidationVida Nueva, Chihuahua, Núm. 263, 18 February 1915; La Prensa, 24 February 1915.
On 16 March the Departamento de Hacienda in Chihuahua told the Jefaturas de Hacienda and Administraciones del Timbre to exchange Gobierno Provisional notes with Chihuahua notes, as far as their resources allowed, and in the meantime to suspend the revalidation of the Gobierno Provisional notesAQ, Fondo Poder Ejecutivo Sec 2ª Hacienda C-1 Año 1915 Exp. 139 telegram Escudero, Chihuahua 16 March1915.
On 31 March, following Villa’s banning of Carrancista issues, the military governor of Chihuahua, Fidel Avila, prohibited the circulation of all such issues except for those that had been revalidated by the state governmentPeriódico Oficial, Chihuahua, Año II, Num 14, 4 Abril 1915.
Admon. Principal del Timbre, Chihuahua
Tesoreria Municipal, Parral, Chihuahua
The notice that the Tesorería de la Federación had designated the Jefaturas de Hacienda and Administraciones Principales Subalternas de la Renta del Timbre as offices for revalidating was published on 31 DecemberPeriódico Oficial, Guanajuato, Tomo LXVIII, Núm. 10, 31 December 1914 and the extension until 26 January on 7 January 1915Periódico Oficial, Guanajuato, Tomo LXVIII, Núm. 12, 7 January 1915.
Revalidado por orden del Departa / mento de HACIENDA / CELAYA MARZO DE 1915 with a circular seal of the ADMOR. PRINCIPAL DEL TIMBRE - CELAYA and the signatures of
Administración Pral. del Timbre León, Gto.
On 15 March 1915 notices were posted in the usual places that by order of the government all Gobiero Provisional notes ought to circulate, even when they were not revalidatedCrispín Espinosa, Efemérides Guanajuatenses, 1917.
San Miguel de Allende
REVALIDADO / conforme a la circular del Departa- / mento de Hacienda de 17 de / febrero de 1915. / SAN MIGUEL ALLENDE, MARZO 8 DE 1915. / EL ADMOR. PRA. and signature of
The Presidente Municipal of Salvatierra, Guanajuato, published a circular reminding holders of circular núm. 48 on 10 January 1916ASalvatierra, caja 1915. On 21 March 1916 Oficial Mayor Juan Araujo, noting that businesses and the public were refusing to accept Constitutionalista and Gobierno Provisional notes with red and blue backs that had not been revalidated instructed the various offices of the Administración General de Rentas to take them as being of forced circulation, thus derogating his disposition of 12 FebruaryASalvatierra, Municipal, caja 1915. This was acknowledged by the Administración Subalterna del Timbre in Salvatierra on 28 MarchASalvatierra, Municipal, caja 1915 and copied to the Presidente MunicipalASalvatierra, Municipal, caja 1915.
On 23 March the Presidente Municipal of Tarimoro reported that people were refusing to accept Veracruz notes of five pesos or greater, even if they were revalidated C. Paredas, Tarimoro to Presidente, Municipal, Salvatierra, 23 March 1916. On 29 March Salvatierra sent him a copy of their recent circular.
On 4 March 1916 the Guanajuato government reiterated the paragraph in circular núm. 48 that notes that lacked resellos were still forcedPeriódico Oficial, Guanjuato , 9 March 1916. Salvatierra relayed the information in its own circular on 29 MarchASalvatierra, Municipal, caja 1915.
On 13 April 1916 the Jefe de Hacienda in Guanajuato noted that businesses were refusing to accept Gobierno Provisional notes that lacked the resello of the local Jefatura de Hacienda. In fact these notes did not need the resello, and any that had been so revalidated had been in error, when they were presented along with other notesASalvatierra, Municipal, caja 1915.
República Mexicana, Buenavista, Guerrero
Administración Subalterna del Timbre, Cocula.
On 1 January 1915 the governor Daniel Cerecedo Estrada reported that as the Convention’s period for revalidating had been extended the Gobierno Provisional notes which had been nullified remained valid until 20 JanuaryAH, Fondo Atotonilco el Grande, Sección Gobierno: Serie: Bandas y Decretos, Caja 77, Exp. 1.
The 17 December decree was published on 28 December El Estado de Jalisco, Tomo LXXX, No 1, 28 December 1914 but with some errors, so it was republished on 14 January 1915El Estado de Jalisco, Tomo LXXX, No. 16, 14 January 1915. The same day Gabriel Vargas, the Jefe de Hacienda, issued a notice on how the exchange would be effectedBoletín Militar, Tomo III, Núm. 279, 29 September 1915. Although the public were warned that the deadline was 31 OctoberBoletín Militar, Tomo III, Núm. 296, 19 October 1915 the government sought an extension and on 2 January Vargas told the governor that the period for exchange had been extended until 25 JanuaryEl Estado de Jalisco, Tomo LXXX, No. 6, 2 January 1915.
On 12 November 1915 the Jefatura de Hacienda received instructions to start paying out on the deposits that had been made. The Jefe de Hacienda, Gabriel Vargas, said that as many poor people were holding certificates of deposits for small amounts on Mondays and Tuesdays they would pay out on $1 to $500, on Wednesdays and Thursdays from $500 to $5,000 and on Fridays and Saturdays on amounts over $5,000El Demócrata, Guadalajara, Tomo I, Núm, 13, 13 November 1915
On 15 December Gabriel Vargas informed the public that Veracruz and Ejército Constitucionalista notes were valid even without resellosEl Demócrata, Guadalajara, Tomo I, Núm. 46, 16 December 1915.Vargas had to reinforce the message of Carranza’s circular núm. 48 again, a fortnight laterEl Demócrata, Guadalajara, Tomo I, Núm. 61, 31 December 1915.
AGENCIA DEL TIMBRE - ATOYAC, JAL.
ADMON. SUBALTERNA DEL TIMBRE - AUTLAN
ADMINISTRACION SUBALTERNA DEL TIMBRE - CIUDAD GUZMAN, JAL.
On 2 January 1915 the Jefe de Hacienda told governor Julián C. Medina that the Tesorería de la Federación had extended the period for revalidation until 25 January 1915La República, Núm. 1, 6 January 1915.
Adm. Pral. del Timbre-Timbre, Guadalajara
Adm. Principal del Timbre, Guadalajara (eagle at centre)
Adm. Pral. del Timbre, Guadalajara
Admon. Principal del Timbre, Guadalajara
AGENCIA DEL TIMBRE - SAN GABRIEL
Revalidado Conforme a la Circular de Hacienda de 17 de Febrero de 1915, San Marcos
Tamazula, Agencia del Timbre
AGENCIA DEL TIMBRE - ZACOLALCO
On 1 January 1915 Aurelio Castañón, the Jefe de Hacienda, reported that, in accordance with the 17 December decree, his Jefatura had been designated by the Tesorería de la Federación for the exchange of Gobierno Provisional notes, which would take place until 6 JanuaryPeriódico Oficial, Michocán, 3 January 1915. This period was extended on 6 January for another two weeksPeriódico Oficial, Michocán, 10 January 1915.
On 19 January the Secretario General told the Prefectos of the state that the $1 notes (Series A) up to number 999999 were good while higher numbers, though unacknowleged, could circulate. $5 notes were null, unless they were revalidatedAMMor, caja 29, exp. 114. However, on 22 January 1915 the Governor told the Prefectos that the $5 Gobierno Provisional notes (Series B) were of forced circulationAMMor, caja 29, exp. 61.
ESTADO DE MICHOACAN, / REVALIDADO / conforme al Decreto 10 de Marzo de 1915
CUERPO DE EJERCITO DEL NORTE / PAGADURIA GENERAL / DE LA COLUMNA DE [ ] / 15 MARZ 1915 / signature / MICHOACAN
a circular seal with 'AGENCIA DEL TIMBRE - ZAMORA, MICH.' and REVALIDADO POR ACUERDO / DEL DEPARTAMENTO DE / HACIENDA / Zamora de 1915 and signatures of and
Administración de Rentas, Uruapan
On 25 February 1915, Raul Madero, governor of Nuevo León, in his decree núm. 3, ordered that all Gobierno Provisional notes should be revalidated in the Administración Principal de Timbre with a red inscription “Revalidado por orden del Departamento de Hacienda” and the signatures of the Administrador and Contador. Holders had until 15 March to complyPeriódico Oficial, Nuevo León, 5 March 1915.
However, following Villa's disowning of Carranza, on 13 March Madero, in his decree núm. 5, withdrew unrevalidated Gobierno Provisional notes, giving holders ten days to exchange them for Chihuahua notes. Rvalidated notes continued to be of forced circulation.
ADMINISTRACION PRINCIPAL DEL TIMBRE - QUERETARO
REVALIDADO / Por Acuerdo del Departamento de Hacienda, / Querétaro de 1915 / EL CONTADOR EL ADMOR. PRAL with signatures of Contador and R. Martínez as Administrador Principal
On 1 March 1915 the provisional governor of Querétaro, Gustavo M. Bravo, asked Villa’s Secretaría de Hacienda in Chihuahua for authorisation to revalídate the Gobierno Provisional de México since, because of the difficulties in communications, there were many notes without a resello in the city. Chihuahua agreed that they could revalidate notes during the month of MarchAQ, Fondo Poder Ejecutivo Sec 2ª Hacienda C-1 Año 1915 Exp. 142.
The same day the Administrador Principal, R. Martínez, wrote to the governor that the Departamento de Hacienda (in Chihuahua) had told him that the Gobierno Provisional de México notes should be revalidated with a stamp stating “Revalidado por acuerdo del Departamento de Hacienda” with the date, and his and the contador’s signature, all in red inkAQ, Fondo Poder Ejecutivo Sec 2ª Hacienda C-1 Año 1915 Exp. 144. However, on 16 March 1915 the Departamento de Hacienda y Fomento in Chihuahua wrote instructing offices to change current issues(billetes provisionales) for Estado de Chihuahua notes as the state of their funds permitted and meanwhile to suspend the revalidation of Gobierno Provisional notesAQ, Fondo Poder Ejecutivo Sec 2ª Hacienda C-1 Año 1915 Exp. 139 telegram Escudero, Chihuahua 16 March1915; acknowledged by Martínez (AQ, Fondo Poder Ejecutivo Sec 2ª Hacienda C-1 Año 1915 Exp. 142) and copied to Administradores Principales del Timbre on 18 March(AQ, Fondo Poder Ejecutivo Sec 2ª Hacienda C-1 Año 1915 Exp. 139) so this revalidation appears shortlived.
San Luis Potosí
Admon. Principal del Timbre, Revalidado, San Luis Potosí
Revalidado por orden del Departamento de Hacienda / San Luis Potosí, Febrero de 1915. / El Admor. Pral. del Timbre El Contador with signatures of as Administrador Principal and as Contador.
The 17 December decree was published in San Luis Potosí on 29 DecemberPeriódico Oficial, San Luis Potosí, 29 December 1914.
On 17 March 1915 the government issued its circular núm. 10 stating that it had been told by the Departamento de Hacienda in Chihuahua to exchange Gobierno Provisional with Chihuahua notes, as far as their resources allowed, and in the meantime to suspend the revalidation of the Gobierno Provisional notes ASLP, Ayuntamiento 1915.14.
Admon. Subalterna del Timbre, Papatla
AGENCIA DEL TIMBRE - TUXPAN, 9o CANTON, L. DE
On 14 January 1915 the Jefe de Hacienda, Teodoro Carrillo, said that they were beginning to exchange the notes. For quantities greater than $100 the exchange would be made in the Jefatura de Hacienda and for smaller sums in the Adminstración de TimbreSiglo XX, Zacatecas, Núm. 52, 14 January 1915.
Revalidado por orden del / Departamento de Hacienda / [ ] I.
Finally, it should be mention that other overprints might have been applied just in the course of business, such as this oval overprint from a concern in Guadalajara.