The revolution in the Estado de México

Toluca, the capital of the state, about 63 kilometres west-southwest of Mexico City, was captured by the second Brigada del Cuerpo de Ejército Constitucionalista de la División del Noreste, under General Brigadier Francisco Murguia, on 8 August 1914. However, he left Toluca in November 1914 to join Carranza in his flight to Veracruz.

A notice issued by the Inspección General de Policía, dated 29 January 1915, in the names of Inspector Coronel F. Ibarra and Secretario J. M. Arriaga, declared that, amongst others, the Estado de Sonora, sábanas, dos caritas and Ejército Constitucionalista notes were of forced circulation but made no mention of revalidations. However, the Villista issues needed special attention as on 1 February the provisional governor wrote to the Presidente Municipal, recommending that he immediately use the police to ensure that all businesses that had closed establishments reopen them and, at the same time, ensure that Villista notes were accepted, since they were of forced circulation. The next day the Inspector General de Policia, Juan Camacho, reported to the Presidente Municipal that he had given the necessary ordersAMT, sección especial, caja 21, exp. 1014.

sabanas 10 B 71851 reverse

sabRTolucaThus, sábanas are known revalidated with a round (34mm) violet rubber stamp with: ‘INSPECCION GENERAL DE POLICIA - TOLUCA – MEXICO’ and eagle in centre.

In March 1915 when Villista notes stopped circulating in Mexico City they appeared in great numbers in Toluca, particularly the $50 and $100 values. This ‘bad’ money drove out the ‘good’ and Governor Gustavo Baz had to authorise an emergency issue of fractional notesGaceta del Gobierno, 24 March 1915. However, the sábanas were more acceptable than Convention notes or those issued by BazGustavo G. Velazquez, Toluca de Ayer, Mexico, 1972. On 13 April the Governor decided that, until it received an answer as to which notes were of forced circulation, if anyone wanted to pay their taxes with Villista notes, offices should only accept 25% of any payment in such notes. Notices were put up to advise the public (AMT, Presidencia, caja 203, exp. 12). By April 1915 the sábanas had to be revalidated in accordance with with the Convention's decree of 23 January 1915 whilst on 30 June they were declared as being no longer of forced circulationRodolfo Alanis Boyza, Historia de la Revolución en el Estado de Mexico: zapatistas en el poder, Toluca, 1987.

The Carrancistas captured Toluca on 14 October 1915 and the next day invalidated all their opponents’ currency.

On 14 October 1915 the Zapatistas evacuated Toluca and it was taken over by Carrancistas, under General Alejo G. González. On the next day, González declared invalid all the notes issued by enemy factions with only the Veracruz notes as legal tender.