Municipal issues from Zamora
In 1915 General Francisco Villa informally appointed General Jesús Síntora as Military Commander in Michoacán. Síntora gained support within Zamora and in July 1915 ordered the town hall to fly the Conventionalist Army flag. Teniente Colonel Luis G. Cardenas became municipal president and Síntora himself took charge of the military forces during the following two months, as he tried to enlarge the Conventionalist Army’s territory against the Constitutionalist troops of General Carranza.
The need for currency made the Conventionists order the production of provisional municipal paper money in accordance with a military decree of 8 August 1915[text needed].
These are known in denominations ranging from 5 to 50 centavos, although it is more than probable that higher denominations were issued, specifically the one peso value commonly made by revolutionary armies in different cities in Mexico and of course in Michoacán. The 20c and 50c values carry the names of Cardenas, Síntora and J. Prado as Tesorero (Treasurer).
|Luis G. Cardenas|
Jesús Sintora was born in Carrizal de Arteaga. Michoacán. He joined the local Maderistas in 1911 and in 1912 rebelled against governor Miguel Silva. A Huertista coronel in 1913-1914 he operated in the districts of Arteaga, Apatzingán, Uruapan and Zamora. When the Federal forces were defeated in July 1914 he joined the forces of Gertrudis Sánchez under the direct command of Joaquín Amaro and served as a Villista general, from July to September 1915 being jefe de operaciones in Michoacán with his headquarters in Zamora,
After the Convention was defeated, from 1916 to 1918 he was the Felicista jefe of the Cuerpo de Ejército del Norte of the Ejército Reorganizador with his headquarters in la Huacana and Arteaga in charge of three brigades – Sintora, Altamirano and García Chávez.
He died in Tepenahua in 1919, defeated by the forces of J. Concepción Pérez.
|5c||A||includes number 5762|
|B||includes numbers 920CNBanxico #11542 to 1397CNBanxico #5262|
|10c||A||includes numbers 1410CNBanxico #11543 to 8986CNBanxico #5264|
|B||includes number 5147CNBanxico #5263|
|20c||A||includes numbers 989CNBanxico #5266 to 6465CNBanxico #5272|
|B||includes numbers 1281CNBanxico #5268 to 7443CNBanxico #5267|
|D||includes number 4716CNBanxico #5277|
|I||includes number 2266CNBanxico #5276|
|25c||includes number 2635|
|50c||A||includes number 4267CNBanxico #7179|
|D||includes numbers 1842CNBanxico #5280 to 8615|
|H||includes numbers 1861CNBanxico #11547 to 8185CNBanxico #5278|
On 10 September Síntora received a reinforcement of 400 men from Villa’s Division of the North but on 23 September Constitutionalist troops took over Zamora and Síntora had to withdraw his troops towards the south. So these notes will have been short-lived. That is probably why the 50c ticket has a stamp that reads “VALIDO POR 4 MESES” (valid for four months).
Unfortunately for numismatists, the Zamora Municipal Archive of these years is incomplete, missing even entire years in its collection. Among the missing documents is the “Decree of 6 August 1915” which contained the order for production of the municipal paper money. The document, as is usual in other places, must have stipulated the amounts and denominations of notes, and the authorization of production for Mr. Anaya, the owner of Imprenta Anaya; one of the most important and recognized printers of the city.
Just as an example of these notes and as a proof of survival, I illustrate the very first one, numbered 1, even though it is Series E. This could possibly be because in the middle of the war the army did not pay attention to the series; they only took the notes and started stamping them on different days and without order. Thus we can see notes stamped on 29 August 1915 with series I and J while others stamped on 11 September are series A and B.
(based on "Report of Hacienda Los Espinos Paper Money" by Ricardo Vargas Verduzco, USMexNA journal December 2015)