Felipe Riveros in San Blas
Felipe Riveros was elected governor of Sinaloa for the four year term beginning 27 September 1912. In February 1913 he at first acknowledged Huerta’s usurpation but Huerta had him arrested and taken to Mexico City. He was tried for treason but acquitted and fled back to Sinaloa, where the rebels established themselves at San Blas. Riveros installed his Revolutionary government in San Blas on 1 July with José G. Heredia Secretario General del Gobierno, José A. Meza as Tesorero and Colonel Felipe Dussart as Jefe del Departamento de GuerraAHSDN, Fondo Revolucionario, exp. Sinaloa 1913, segundo tomo, xi/481.5/261, f. 361. On 5 July Carranza recognized Riveros as governor of Sinaloa (though it was not legally in his power to do so Carranza was trying to establish himself as Primer Jefe) and in September 1913 Carranza passed through the north of the state on his way to Hermosillo, Sonora.
Military operations, however, were in the hands of others, such as General Ramón F. Iturbe. General Alvaro Obregón crossed from Sonora to Sinaloa in November 1913 and captured Culiacán on 14 November and then besieged Mazatlán, where the federal forces held out until 9 August 1914.
Decree núm . 3
Riveros’ first currency decree (núm. 3) from San Blas on 13 July 1913 was for an issue of $100,000 in five denominations, thus:
|25c||A||10,000||$2,500||includes number 2903|
|D||10,000||2,500||includes number 167082|
|B||5,000||2,500||includes number 29104|
|C||1,000||5,000||includes numbers 43178 to 43330|
|D||1,000||5,000||includes number 59427CNBanxico #12044|
|C||500||5,000||includes number 42320|
|E||500||5,000||includes number 83538|
The decree detailed the size (191mm x 73mm), colour of ink and text to be used and stated that the notes were provisional, until a law on paper currency was passed.
The notes are quite primitive. They carried the printed names of Riveros as governor and Felipe Dussart as secretary (even though he had already stepped down) and the signature of José A. Meza as state treasurer (Tesorero General).
The 25c note illustrated above (A 2903) is signed by Carlos Randall, the Treasurer General of the neighbouring state of Sonora.
Carlos E. Randall Bazozábal was born on 23 May 1860, the son of an English skipper who had lived in Guaymas since the middle of the century. He tried his hand at mining, at storekeeping and in various other businesses, and was obliged to spend ten years outside the state because of his opposition to the ruling clique. José María Maytorena and Randall started the first Club Reyista in Guaymas originally not as an anti-reelection movement but to support Reyes against Corral in the vice-presidential election. Randall was the club’s treasurer whilst Maytorena was president.
Randall accompanied Maytorena on his sabbatical to the United States. When they returned he supported Maytorena against Carranza and was named governor by Villa on 1 October 1915. On 26 November 1915 he left for the United States but returned in 1920.
He died in Tucson on 2 July 1929 and is buried in Guaymas.
Decree núm. 8
A month later, on 13 August, Riveros, still at San Blas, in his decree núm. 8[text needed] authorised another issue of $1,000,000 in five series (A – E). There were to be $200,000 in each of the series, made up of 400,000 of 5c, 400,000 of 10c, 160,000 of 25c, 80,000 of 50c, 20,000 of $1, 4,000 of $5 and 2,000 of $10.
These notes were to replace the notes already in circulation. Though they were intended to have similar text and signatures to the previous issue, they would also be smaller in size, more rectangular and carry a portrait of Madero. However, this money was never printed.
Decree núm. 11
Later, on 15 September of the same year another one hundred thousand pesos of these “bearer vouchers”, was authorized by decree núm. 11 in San Blas. There were to be five series (F – J), each again made up of $20,000 as in the previous series, i.e. 10,000 25c, 5,000 50c, 5,000 $1, 1,000 $5 and 500 $10 notes. These carried the names of governor Riveros and secretary Fidencio E. Schmidt and the signature of Josê A. Meza as interim state treasurer.
Fidencio E. Schmidt Gómez Llanos was born in Mazatlán, in 1886, the son of the American Federico Schmidt and a local lady, Herlinda Gómez Llanos.
He was one of the first to support Madero and to distribute Madero’s book La Sucesión Presidencial de 1910 in Sinaloa. In 1911, during the administration of José M. Rentería, he was secretario of the Mazatlán town council.
On 14/15 September 1913 Carranza, while in El Fuerte, approved Schmidt appointment as a mayorAHSDN, AC, exp. Gral Miguel Armienta López, XI/111/3-3187, f.31.
He died in 1942.
|I||5,000||2,500||includes number 183837|
|$5||F||1,000||5,000||includes number 166185|
|H||1,000||5,000||includes number 135652CNBanxico #12045|
|$10||F||500||5,000||includes number 1055749|
|G||500||5,000||includes number 121067CNBanxico #6242|
Decree núm. 14
Decree núm. 14 of 23 October authorised another $300,000 in Series K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, X, Y, Z.
|25c||K||10,000||$2,500||includes number 259744CNBanxico #12046|
|S||10,000||2,500||includes number 483608|
|U||10,000||2,500||includes number 538139|
|V||10,000||2,500||includes number 575806|
|Y||10,000||2,500||includes number 637554|
|50c||K||5,000||2,500||includes number 207063CNBanxico #12047|
|M||5,000||2,500||includes number 249925|
|Z||5,000||5,000||includes number 545345CNBanxico #12048|
|O||1,000||5,000||includes number 264724|
|U||1,000||5,000||includes number 237843|
|V||272001||273000||1,000||5,000||includes number 272755|
|X||273001||274000||1,000||5,000||includes number 273342CNBanxico #12049|
|M||500||5,000||includes number 210114CNBanxico #12050|
|O||500||5,000||includes number 233169CNBanxico #6241|
|Q||500||5,000||includes number 234689|
On some notes the handwritten signatory is Matías Ayala, as Interventor, rather than Meza as interim Tesorero General.
Matías Ayala was a student activistBoth José G. Heredía and Matías Ayala represented the Colegio Rosales, of Sinaloa, at the Congreso Nacional de Estudiantes in September 1910 (El Tiempo, 9 August 1910), one of the organisers for Diego Redo’s candidature in 1909La Iberia, Año IV, Núm. 943, 13 July 1909 and then secretary to Felipe Riveros during his governorship. In early 1913 four men from Culiacán, including Matías Ayala and Ignacio Bermúdez, were accused of fomenting rebellion, arrested by the military authorities and sentenced to enlistment in the army. On 27 June they were transferred to Mexico City where they sought an amparo (injunction) and a deputation of Sinaloan students appealed to the Ministro de Gobernación on their behalfEl Imparcial, 29 June 1913; The Mexican Herald, 1 July 1913. Ayala and Gregorio Cuevas were freed from prison on condition that they did not leave the city, but in November fled back to Sinaloa to join the rebellionThe Mexican Herald, 19 November 1913.
When he was in San Blas, Riveros created a new cabinet with Ayala as Interventor Auxiliar del TesoreroAHSDN, FR, exp. Sinaloa 1913, segundo tomo, xi/481.5/261, f. 361.
Another 50c note refers to this decree núm. 14, but is of cruder design, the seal is of the Regimiento Cosala of the Brigada Sinaloa rather than the state of Sinaloa, and the handwritten signatory is Teniente Coronel Nigromante(?). Cosala is a small town in Sinaloa, about 50 miles south east of Culiacán, whilst the Brigada Sinaloa, commanded by General Ramón F. Iturbe, was part of the Constitutionalist Cuerpo de Ejército del Noroeste. Presumably this was an extremely local issue, trying to piggyback on the acceptance of Riveros’ issues.
|[ ] Nigromante|