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Felipe Riveros in San Blas

Felipe Riveros was elected governor of Sinaloa for the four year term beginning 27 September 1912. In February 1913 he at first acknowledged Huerta’s usurpation but Huerta had him arrested and taken to Mexico City. He was tried for treason but acquitted and fled back to Sinaloa, where the rebels established themselves at San Blas. On 5 July Carranza recognized Riveros as governor of Sinaloa (though it was not legally in his power to do so Carranza was trying to establish himself as Primer Jefe) and in September 1913 Carranza passed through the north of the state on his way to Hermosillo, Sonora.

Military operations, however, were in the hands of others, such as General Ramón F. Iturbe. General Alvaro Obregón crossed from Sonora to Sinaloa in November 1913 and captured Culiacán on 14 November and then besieged Mazatlán, where the federal forces held out until 9 August 1914.

Decree núm . 3

San Blas 25c D 107082

San Blas 25c D 107082 reverse

Riveros’ first currency decree (núm. 3) from San Blas on 13 July 1913 was for an issue of $100,000 in five denominations, thus:

  Series from to total
number
total
value
 
25c A     10,000 $2,500 includes number 2903
B      10,000 2,500  
C     10,000 2,500  
D      10,000 2,500 includes number 167082
E      10,000 2,500  
50c A      5,000 2,500  
B      5,000 2,500 includes number 29104
C      5,000 2,500  
D      5,000 2,500  
E     5,000 2,500  
$1 A      5,000 5,000  
B     5,000 5,000  
C      5,000 5,000  
D      5,000 5,000  
E      5,000 5,000  
$5 A      1,000 5,000  
B      1,000 5,000  
C      1,000 5,000 includes numbers 43178 to 43330
D      1,000 5,000 includes number 59427CNBanxico #12044
E      1,000 5,000  
$10 A      500 5,000  
B      500 5,000  
C      500 5,000 includes number 42320
D      500 5,000  
E      500 5,000 includes number 83538
          $100,000  

 

The decree detailed the size (191mm x 73mm), colour of ink and text to be used and stated that the notes were provisional, until a law on paper currency was passed.

The notes are quite primitive. They carried the printed names of Riveros as governor and Felipe Dussart as secretary (even though he had already stepped down) and the signature of José A. Meza as state treasurer (Tesorero General).

RiverosFelipe Riveros Pérez was born in Mocorito, Sinaloa on 5 February 1880. He was president of the Club Antireeleccionista in Angostura in 1910, being a personal friend of Francisco Madero, and later rose in arms, rising to the rank of general. On 26 March 1912, when Governor José Rentería was forced to flee, Riveros was named interim governor and then won the election for the four-year term beginning 27 September 1912. In February 1913 he at first acknowledged Huerta’s usurpation but Huerta had him arrested and taken to Mexico City. He was tried for treason but acquitted and fled back to Sinaloa, where the rebels established themselves at San Blas. On 5 July Carranza recognized Riveros as governor of Sinaloa (though it was not legally in his power to do so Carranza was trying to establish himself as Primer Jefe).

When Villa broke with Carranza Riveros supported the former, With the Villistas being pursued by forces under Coronel Ignacio Gurrola, he had to flee, leaving behind typewriters, telephones, $112,000 of his own issue, cars, horses etc. In Chihuahua he fell out with Villa who ordered his execution, though the assassins killed his brother Jesús by mistake.

He later returned to Sinaloa and devoted himself to agriculture. He died on his hacienda La Providencia on 5 May 1945.

 

Felipe Dussart

When he was in San Blas, Riveros created a new cabinet with coronel Felipe Dussart as jefe of the Departamento de GuerraAHSDN, FR, exp. Sinaloa 1913, segundo tomo, xi/481.5/261, f. 361.

 

José A. Meza was born in Culiacan in 1862. He studied law at the National School of Jurisprudence. Between 1894 and 1902 he was Magistrado del Supremo Tribunal de Justicia del Estado, but broke with the porfiristas in June 1909 by campaigning for José Ferrel, who was defeated by Diego Redo, the candidate imposed by Díaz. In 1911 he was Juez de Primera Instancia of the district of El FuerteEl Correo de la Tarde, núm. 8489, 19 July 1911.

In August 1911, in the first elections of the revolutionary period, there were three candidates for governor; Fortunato Vega, proposed by the hacendados of El Fuerte, Meza, for the moderate Maderistas, and José Rentería, supported by the radical Maderistas. The Porfirian provisional governor Gaxiola Rojo supported Meza, which condemned his candidacy and Renteria won by a landslide.

During the Riveros regime he served as prefect of El Fuerte. Then, when he was in San Blas, Riveros created a new cabinet with Meza as Tesorero.

He died in El Fuerte in 1928.

sig Meza

 

The 25c note illustrated above (A 2903) is signed by Carlos Randall, the Treasurer General of the neighbouring state of Sonora.

RandallCarlos E. Randall Bazozábal was born on 23 May 1860, the son of an English skipper who had lived in Guaymas since the middle of the century. He tried his hand at mining, at storekeeping and in various other businesses, and was obliged to spend ten years outside the state because of his opposition to the ruling clique. José María Maytorena and Randall started the first Club Reyista in Guaymas originally not as an anti-reelection movement but to support Reyes against Corral in the vice-presidential election. Randall was the club’s treasurer whilst Maytorena was president.

Randall accompanied Maytorena on his sabbatical to the United States. When they returned he supported Maytorena against Carranza and was named governor by Villa on 1 October 1915. On 26 November 1915 he left for the United States but returned in 1920.

He died in Tucson on 2 July 1929 and is buried in Guaymas. 

sig Randall

 

Decree núm. 8

A month later, on 13 August, Riveros, still at San Blas, in his decree núm. 8[text needed] authorised another issue of $1,000,000 in five series (A – E).  There were to be $200,000 in each of the series, made up of 400,000 of 5c, 400,000 of 10c, 160,000 of 25c, 80,000 of 50c, 20,000 of $1, 4,000 of $5 and 2,000 of $10.

These notes were to replace the notes already in circulation. Though they were intended to have similar text and signatures to the previous issue, they would also be smaller in size, more rectangular and carry a portrait of Madero. However, this money was never printed.

Decree núm. 11

Later, on 15 September of the same year another one hundred thousand pesos of these “bearer vouchers”, was authorized by decree núm. 11 in San Blas. There were to be five series (F – J), each again made up of $20,000 as in the previous series, i.e. 10,000 25c, 5,000 50c, 5,000 $1, 1,000 $5 and 500 $10 notes. These carried the names of governor Riveros and secretary Fidencio E. Schmidt and the signature of Josê A. Meza as interim state treasurer.

Fidencio E. Schmidt Gómez Llanos was born in Mazatlán, in 1886, the son of the American Federico Schmidt and a local lady, Herlinda Gómez Llanos.

He was one of the first to support Madero and to distribute Madero’s book La Sucesión Presidencial de 1910 in Sinaloa. In 1911, during the administration of José M. Rentería, he was secretario of the Mazatlán town council.

On 14/15 September 1913 Carranza, while in El Fuerte, approved Schmidt appointment as a mayorAHSDN, AC, exp. Gral Miguel Armienta López, XI/111/3-3187, f.31.

He died in 1942.

 

 

  Series from to total
number
total
value
 
25c F     10,000 $2,500  
G      10,000 2,500  
H     10,000 2,500  
I      10,000 2,500  
J      10,000 2,500  
50c F      5,000 2,500  
G      5,000 2,500  
H      5,000 2,500  
I      5,000 2,500 includes number 183837
J     5,000  2,500  
$1 F      5,000 5,000  
G     5,000 5,000  
H      5,000 5,000  
I      5,000 5,000  
J      5,000 5,000  
$5 F      1,000 5,000 includes number 166185
G      1,000 5,000  
H      1,000 5,000 includes number 135652CNBanxico #12045 
I      1,000 5,000  
J      1,000 5,000  
$10 F      500 5,000 includes number 1055749
G      500 5,000 includes number 121067CNBanxico #6242   
H      500 5,000  
I      500 5,000  
J      500 5,000  
          $100,000  

Decree núm. 14

Estado 25c U 538139

Estado 25c U 538139 reverse

Decree núm. 14 of 23 October authorised another $300,000 in Series K, L, M, N, O, P, Q, R, S, T, U, V, X, Y, Z.

  Series from to total
number
total
value
 
25c K     10,000 $2,500 includes number 259744CNBanxico #12046  
L      10,000 2,500  
M     10,000 2,500  
N      10,000 2,500  
O      10,000 2,500  
P     10,000  2,500  
Q     10,000 2,500  
R     10,000 2,500  
S     10,000  2,500 includes number 483608
T     10,000  2,500  
U     10,000  2,500 includes number 538139
V     10,000 2,500 includes number 575806
X      10,000 2,500  
Y     10,000 2,500 includes number 637554
Z     10,000  2,500  
50c K      5,000 2,500 includes number 207063CNBanxico #12047  
L      5,000 2,500  
M      5,000 2,500 includes number 249925 
N      5,000 2,500  
O     5,000 2,500  
P      5,000  2,500  
Q      5,000  2,500  
R      5,000  2,500  
S      5,000  2,500  
T      5,000  2,500  
U      5,000  2,500  
V      5,000  2,500  
X      5,000  2,500  
Y      5,000  2,500  
Z      5,000  2,500  
$1 K      5,000 5,000  
L     5,000 5,000  
M      5,000 5,000  
N      5,000 5,000  
O      5,000 5,000  
P       5,000   5,000  
Q       5,000   5,000  
R       5,000   5,000  
S       5,000  5,000  
T       5,000  5,000  
U       5,000  5,000  
V       5,000   5,000  
X       5,000   5,000  
Y       5,000   5,000  
Z       5,000   5,000 includes number 545345CNBanxico #12048  
$5 K      1,000 5,000  
L      1,000 5,000  
M      1,000 5,000  
N      1,000 5,000  
O      1,000 5,000 includes number 264724
P      1,000  5,000  
Q      1,000  5,000  
R      1,000  5,000  
S      1,000  5,000  
T      1,000  5,000  
U      1,000  5,000 includes number 237843
V  272001 273000  1,000  5,000 includes number 272755
X 273001 274000  1,000  5,000 includes number 273342CNBanxico #12049  
Y      1,000  5,000  
Z      1,000  5,000  
$10 K      500 5,000  
L      500 5,000  
M      500 5,000 includes number 210114CNBanxico #12050  
N      500 5,000  
O      500 5,000 includes number 233169CNBanxico #6241  
P      500  5,000  
Q      500  5,000 includes number 234689
R      500  5,000  
S      500  5,000  
T      500  5,000  
U      500  5,000  
V      500  5,000  
X      500  5,000  
Y      500  5,000  
Z      500  5,000  
          $300,000  

 

On some notes the handwritten signatory is Matías Ayala, as Interventor, rather than Meza as interim Tesorero General.

Matías Ayala was a student activistBoth José G. Heredía and Matías Ayala represented the Colegio Rosales, of Sinaloa, at the Congreso Nacional de Estudiantes in September 1910 (El Tiempo, 9 August 1910), one of the organisers for Diego Redo’s candidature in 1909La Iberia, Año IV, Núm. 943, 13 July 1909 and then secretary to Felipe Riveros during his governorship. In early 1913 four men from Culiacán, including Matías Ayala and Ignacio Bermúdez, were accused of fomenting rebellion, arrested by the military authorities and sentenced to enlistment in the army. On 27 June they were transferred to Mexico City where they sought an amparo (injunction) and a deputation of Sinaloan students appealed to the Ministro de Gobernación on their behalfEl Imparcial, 29 June 1913; The Mexican Herald, 1 July 1913. Ayala and Gregorio Cuevas were freed from prison on condition that they did not leave the city, but in November fled back to Sinaloa to join the rebellionThe Mexican Herald, 19 November 1913.

When he was in San Blas, Riveros created a new cabinet with Ayala as Interventor Auxiliar del TesoreroAHSDN, FR, exp. Sinaloa 1913, segundo tomo, xi/481.5/261, f. 361.

sig Ayala prov

 

Another 50c note refers to this decree núm. 14, but is of cruder design, the seal is of the Regimiento Cosala of the Brigada Sinaloa rather than the state of Sinaloa, and the handwritten signatory is Teniente Coronel Nigromante(?). Cosala is a small town in Sinaloa, about 50 miles south east of Culiacán, whilst the Brigada Sinaloa, commanded by General Ramón F. Iturbe, was part of the Constitutionalist Cuerpo de Ejército del Noroeste. Presumably this was an extremely local issue, trying to piggyback on the acceptance of Riveros’ issues.

[    ] Nigromante sig Nigromante