Military and municipal issues in Sonora
We know of four issues from military or municipal commanders.
On 9 August 1914 Coronel Ramón Gómez rose in revolt at Navojoa with the forces under his command, disowning Carranza and proclaiming for Maytorena. Gómez removed all the federal and municipal employees whom he considered hostile to his cause and replaced them with his own supporters. He authorised an issue of vales to pay the costs of his troops and extended his sphere of action as far as the city of AlamosFrancisco Almada, La Revolución en el Estado de Sonora, Mexico, 1971.
There survives a type-written, handsigned note for five pesos dated 17 January 1915The text reads ‘Navojoa Enero 17 de 1915 La pagaduria del 12. B pagará al portador $5-00 cinco pesos Constitucion y Reformas El Coronel Jefe del 12 B. Ramon Gomez’. The note has an indistinct resello from Alamos.
On 21 August 1914 the Prefecto of Sahuaripa, Federico Meza, reported to Hermosillo that the local army was using scrip as a temporary measureAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2993. The one surviving 50c note is 75mm by 85mm, numbered 478 and signed by Captain Francisco Figueroa.
Notes were issued to pay the troops in Moctezuma and we know of a $5 note signed by [ ] F. Silva and Federico Meza.
On 28 January 1915 the Presidente Municipal of Banámichi asked whether the notes (billetes o valores) issued by the Comandancia of Moctzuma and signed by Majors Silvas and Meza were of forced acceptance, as businesses were refusing themAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3023. The next day the request was forwarded to governor Maytorena in NogalesAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3023, Año 1915 Movimiento de Fuerzas, letter to Maytorena, Nogales, 29 January 1915, as recorded in AGN, colección Manuel González Ramírez 98/92. Late in February the El Paso Morning Times reported that Francisco Silvas, the Prefect of the Moctezuma district, had issued currency marked ‘Payable at Earliest Convenience’ El Paso Morning Times, 26 February 1915.
On 10 May the state governor was asked to tell the Stamp Office (Administración Subalterna del Timbre) at Sahuaripa to accept the paper money that Prefecto Mesa (sic) had issued to pay the troops under his command as this money was no longer being used and accepting it would help to reduce the amount in circulationAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3024.
The town council (ayuntamiento) at Alamos issued cartones dated 1 July 1916 payable in Carranza’s infalsificable currency and signed by Enrique M. Rochín or Leonardo Santoyo as President and Rafael Guereña as Treasurer. As, in an early version of a Truth and Reconciliation Commission, Sonoran public employees had to complete a questionnaire about their activities during the revolution we known something of these minor officialsAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3064.
Enrique M. Rochin: Rochin’s questionnaire is missing apart from its coversheet but from elsewhere we know that he was running a jewellers and watch shop in Alamos in December 1909, and that he was one of the volunteers who defended Alamos from a Villista attack in [ ] and was taken prisoner. He also wrote poetry and pro-Carranza polemics.
Leonardo Santoyo: Santoyo was elected to the council on 4 October 1915 and was senior alderman (Primer Regidor) in September 1916.
Rafael Guereña: Guereña was interim Tesorero Municipal from 18 April 1913 and Tesorero Municipal from 10 December 1913 to 23 September 1914, when he lost his office because of his political allegiances, but continued being the Carranzista Tesorero General.