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Other private issues

Veracruz privates

El Higo

Hacienda “El Higo”

El Higo, in the north of the state, was founded at the beginning of the 20th century by the French entrepreneur, Federico Proal (1860-1925) as a sugar hacienda.

We have a $5 vale from the Compañía Azucarera del Panuco, S. A., dated 5 May 1915.

Panuco 5

The company also issued $1 and $2 notes printed by Bouligny & Schmidt. The $1, Series A, is known with datestamp 22 April 1916

Panuco 1

  series date on note from to total
$1 A 4 January 1916         includes number 01923
22 April 1916         includes number 11426
$2   22 April 1916         includes number 09507
$5   5 May 1915          


The signatories are:

Federico Proal sig Proal
A. Lanzier sig Ran
E Jean-Vincent(?) sig Panuco pagador
Asencio Vidaurrázaga sig Vid



Huayacocotla is a town in the Huasteca Baja region.

A series of cartones (1c, 25c, and 50c) for local use, with the name of Carlos Barranco, of "La Ciudad de Londres".

Huayacoctla 1c

Huayacoctla 1c reverse

Huayacocotla 25c

Huayacocotla 25c reverse

Huayacocotla 50c

Huayacocotla 50c reverse

  series from to total
1c F          
25c B          


Dominguez Hermanos

Dominguez 2c

Dominguez 2c reverse

A typewritten 2c note. The text ‘no circula’ shows that it was for internal use.


Hacienda de Mahuixtlán

Mahuixtlán is 19 kilometres south of Xalapa.

The sugar mill at Mahuixtlan 1910

The politician and businessmen Eduardo Dondé owned this hacienda: in 1880 he installed a still to produce aguardiente de caña, and in 1907 and 1910 a waterwheel to drive it. So the Francisco Hernández who issued a note for 50c, dated 22 August 1914, might have been the leasee or overseer or run a local tienda.

Hernandez 50c

Francisco Hernández  



Tuzampapam is 14 kilometres east of Coatepec

A series of notes (5c, 10c, 20c, 50c, $1 and $2), of unknown origin. The text reads “ Estos vales suplen al hacer la raya y serán cambiados por billetes de cinco pesos cuando se reunan vales por esa cantidad”.

Tuzamapan 5c

Tuzamapan 10c reverse

Tuzamapan 10c

Tuzamapan 20c reverse

Tuzamapan 20c

Tuzamapan 50c

Tuzamapan 1

Tuzamapan 1 reverse

Tuzamapan 2


Cosautlán is a town in the central mountainous area of Veracruz, about 25 kilometres south of Xalapa.

Carlos Cortés y Hermano

Carlos Cortes 50c

  series from to total
50c A-5         includes number [    ]


A 50c note, dated 20 February 1915 and signed by Carlos Cortés and A. Cortés, presumably his brother.

Carlos Cortés sig Carlos Cortes
A. Cortés sig A Cortes


Botica de “San Rafael”

This chemist's, owned by José de J. Rincón, issued a 50c note, of the same type as other 50c notes issued in Papantla.

San Rafael 50c

  series from to total
50c A-3         includes number 728


After the Americans withdrew their forces a new Junta de Administración Civil was established on 24 November 1914. At one of its first sessions, on 1 December, the Inspector de Policía, Teodoro Frezieres, reported that some casas comerciales had issued cardboard vales (cartones-moneda) without any legal authorisation. He was ordered to collect in the paper money and consign the offenders to the authorities. He was also told to use the press to inform the public that such issues were prohibitedAHV, Actas del Cabildo (Junta de Administración Civil), libro 91, p14 so the next day he published a notice, warning stores that had made issues of moneda fiduciaria, in contravention of the Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público, that they would be referred to the authorities for punishmentEl Dictamen, Año XVI, Núm. 1350, 4 December 1914.

Emilio Llaxa

Llaxa was one of the merchants who issued cartones, in his case for one and two centavos. On 23 December 1914 his lawyer, Manuel Lozada y Prado, asked the Junta de Administración Civil to return $48 that the police has confiscated. The Junta agreed to return the money, in Constitutionalist notes, and refer Llaxa to the Presidente of the Junta for judgementAHV, Actas del Cabildo (Junta de Administración Civil), libro 91, p50.

Hoteles “Diligencias”

Portal del Hotel Diligencias a finales de 1913, visto de la calle Lerdo a la calle Zamora. A la izquierda, se ve parte del zócalo y la torre de la parroquia.Fotógrafo: Walter E. Hadsell.
The Hotel Diligencias of Diáz, Menendez y Compañía faced the main square (and still does).

Diligencias 50c

Salon "La Lonja"

Salon La Lonja

La Lonja 50c

This simple typewritten note for 50c is catalogued as from Mexico City but is in fact Veracruz. Braulio Aparicio advertised his restauant in The Mexican Herald from May to September 1914.

Compañía Limitada de Luz Eléctrica, Fuerza y Tracción de Veracruz

The catalogues list a ticket from this tram company but, as elsewhere, we need further documentary evidence before we can agree that these were used as paper currency.

Luz Veracruz 10c

Rio Blanco

Compañía Industrial de Orizaba, S. A.

This was the largest textile factory in the country.

Industrial 20c

Industrial 50c

  date on note series from to total
20c 9 May 1914 JS         includes number 82001
50c 27 February 1914 NP         includes number 09501