Domingo Arrieta issues

Durango ArrietaThe Arrieta brothers, from the Sierra Madre of Durango, were among the first to take up arms in 1910 in support of Francisco Madero. Then after Huerta’s coup d’état in February 1913 they rebelled again. On 18 June their forces captured the city of Durango, and installed Pastor Rouaix as provisional governor. Domingo Arrieta met with Carranza in Durango in August 1913, and was appointed a General and Comandante Militar of the state.

In January 1914 Pastor Rouaix wrote to Carranza complaining about the difficulties that Arrieta was causing and to ask Carranza to resolve the problem. He said that Arrieta was printing $1,000,000 in bonos. He had tried to convince him of the damage that would be done to business and to government if military jefes issued paper currency without any backing. Rouaix had told Arrieta that he (Rouaix) had Carranza’s permission to issue notes and was already engraving the plates, and he offered to give Arrieta whatever sum he needed for his expenses. Arrieta said that he had had problems receiving funds but Rouaix claimed that the government had always paid and the fault lay with the fact that Arrieta’s brigade did not have a paymaster or keep books. Rouaix asked Carranza to order Arrieta to suspend his issue, and to decide the amount that the government should pay daily to meet his expensesABarragán, caja IV, exp. 31, f.58-72.

On 9 March 1914 F. Rios Laurenzana told Domingo Arrieta that the government did not have the necessary guarantee for the first issue of more than $200,000 so could not give his brigade what it needed for its expensesADUR, Libro Copiador 267, Hacienda 11 July 1913 - 25 April 1914, p849.

First issue

Domingo Arrieta took over as provisional governor from Pastor Rouaix on 14 August 1914. That month there was another issue of $5 and $50 notes, with the same design as Pastor Rouaix's issue and with Carranza’s authorization still on the reverse, but with the signatures of Arrieta as governor, Juan B. Fuentes as secretary and José Clark as Director General de Rentas.

On 18 August Arrieta asked Carranza for permission to issue more currency to pay his troops and on 21 August was authorised to issue up to $1,000,000. By 24 he had started the issuePeriódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XXXIX, Núm. 18,30 August 1914. The statement (corte de caja) for the Dirección General de Rentas, now signed by José Clark, records $625,000 issued from 11 to 31 AugustPeriódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XXXIX, Núm. 10, 10 September 1914.

On 22 September Carranza authorized Arrieta to issue up to another(?) million pesos for the forces under his commandPeriódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XXXIX, Núm. 14, 27 September 1914. In a later telegram to CarranzaCEHM, Fondo XXI-4, telegram Arrieta to Carranza 13 January 1916. The telegram actually list 10,000 $5 notes valued at $500,000, but this is just a typo. Figures confirmed in a telegram from A. Gaxiola D., Durango, to Villarreal, Mexico City, on 21 December 1914 (ADUR, Libro Copiador 278, Telegramas 13 August 1914 - 23 April 1915, p269) Arrieta acknowledged that he had issued the following amounts:

Date on notes Denom. Series Number from to Value Total
August 1914  $5 E 100,000 1 100000 $500,000  
$50 A 10,000 1 10000 500,000 $1,000,000

 

Perversely the Dirección General de Rentas' corte de caja for September originally stated that it issued $500,000Periódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XXXIX, Núm. 15, 8 October 1914 but a later version recorded no issuePeriódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XXXIX, Núm. 23, 29 November 1914.

The Villista Severino Ceniceros officially took over as Comandante Militar and Gobernador on 29 September but even the day before he had announced that while Arrieta's $5 series E and $50 Series A were valid and of forced circulation, his $5 Series F were not, since they had not been authorisedPeriódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XXXIX, Núm. 15, 8 October 1914. So there were series F notes before December (below).

A telegram from Gaxiola to Secretary of Finance Villarreal in Mexico City, on 21 December 1914, reported that there were 10,000 Series A notes, and 100,000 Series E notes. The writer did not know the amount of Series F since the forces had sacked the press on leavingADUR, Libro Copiador 278, Telegramas 13 August 1914 - 23 April 1915, p269.

Known codes are:

  Series from to code
letters
 
$5 E     ERA-  
    ITE vertical
F     NI  
    N-RI vertical
    ACB vertical
    TO.  
$50       MNS- vertical
      OTA  

 

Second issue

In November 1914 Zacatecas included in its list of forced issues the $5 Series E and $50 Series A, issued in August and a similar pronouncement was made in San Luis Potosí.  However, by mid December 1914 businesses in Durango were refusing Arrieta’s $5 notesLa Voz de la Revolución, Tomo 1, Núm. 15, 11 December 1914. By this time Arrieta had been forced out of the capital, so two other issues cannot be definitely located as to time and place. The first was four similar denominations (50c, $1, $5 and $10), Series F, dated December 1914, ordered through General Enrique Nájera and printed by the firm of J. M. Iguiniz of Guadalajara, Jalisco.

 Known codes are:

  Series from to code
letters
 
50c F     D. S. O. vertical
$1 F     D. S. O. vertical
$5 F     D. S. O. vertical
$10 F     D. S. O. vertical

 

In a later telegram to CarranzaCEHM, Fondo XXI-4, telegram Arrieta to Carranza 13 January 1916 Arrieta acknowledged that he had issued the following amounts:

Date on notes Denom. Series Number from to Value Total
December 1914 50c F 200,000 1 200000 $100,000 $1,005,000
$1 F 400,000 1 400000 400,000
$5 F 41,000 1 41000 205,000
$10 F 30,000 1 30000 300,000


In early January 1915, Arrieta presented to Carranza a very dramatic economic situation and according to the transcripts of the telegrams a handwritten note was included with what was probably another authorization from Carranza to issue one more million pesosCEHM, Fondo XXI-4, telegram dated 31 January 1915.

On 1 December 1914 the Chihuahua government prohibited Arrieta’s notes but when Emiliano G. Saravia consulted Villa he was told that this was due to a misinterpretationLa Voz de la Revolución, Tomo 1, Núm. 17, 18 December 1914 The article wrongly suggests that all Arrieta notes were of forced circulation.. Only the Series F were invalid, as unauthorised, but a fortnight later Villa said that he was merely thinking of withdrawing the notes and replacing them with notes of other issues, so Saravia declared the notes still of forced circulationPeriódico Oficial, Durango, Tomo XXIX, Núm. 25, 20 December 1914 and on 14 February 1915 a Durango newspaper had been assured by a government employee that the 50c notes were of forced circulation, even though they were being refusedLa Voz de la Revolución, Tomo 1, Núm. 42, 14 February 1915. On 26 February the same newspaper reported that Arrieta, who still considered himself governor, had made the later issue, which was only good amongst the troops under his command. To forewarn the public it described the differences (date, printer’s imprint, etc) though Arrieta used the same templateLa Voz de la Revolución, Tomo I, Núm. 47, 26 February 1915.

So these Arrieta notes, which were so similar to the earlier Pastor Rouaix notes, entered a sort of legal limbo when Arrieta was driven out by the Villista forces.

San Jose de la Boca

Recently a typewritten five peso voucher from San José de la Boca in the northwest of the state, dated 22 October 1914, and supposedly signed by Arrieta and Juan B. Fuentes, has appeared. This is a companion to the ten peso voucher that was already listed in catalogs.

Date on notes Denom. Series Number from to Total value  
22 October 1914    $5            
$10            

 

These were a local issue and not acknowleged by Arrieta in his later listing.

Provisional issues

The other issue comprises notes with legends referring to both Topia, in the northeastern Sierra Madre, and Durango. They consist of a $1 from Topia and a $5 and $10 from Durango dated December 1914 and another $1 from Topia and $5 and $10 (two types) from Durango dated March 1915.

All are very primitive, with simple typefaces, handwritten numbers and a ‘Gobierno Constitucionalista’ validating seal on a blank back. They carry the names of Arrieta, as governor, and Juan B. Fuentes, as secretary. Some values have the letter ‘S. B.’ , ‘S.C.” or ‘S.D.’ which suggests at least four S[eries] ( -, B, C, D). Possible reasons for these makeshift issues are a failure of the Guadalajara firm to deliver, or to the primitive resources some of Arrieta’s supporters found at their disposal.

Topia

On 26 November 1915 Epifanio Hernández wrote from Mexico City to governor Mariano Arrieta asking him to exchange $5,000 in vales issued by Domingo Arrieta in TopiaADUR, Fondo Secretaria General de Gobierno (Siglo XX), Sección 6 Gobierno, Serie 6.7 Correspondencia, caja 7, nombre 57. On 3 December Mariano Arrieta told Hernández that he could not do anything and Hernández should apply to Domingo Arrieta, in MonterreyADUR, Libro Copiador 303, Telegramas 23 April 1915 - 10 April 1916, p372. On 4 December Secretario Interino F. Castaños wrote to Arrieta in Monterrey (and Saltillo) that the people of Tamazula and Santiago Papasquiaro, knowing that they had to exchange the Arrieta notes as well as the Topia boletas had come to the city to do so. He was telling Arrieta so he could sort it out when he came to DurangoADUR, Libro Copiador 303, Telegramas 23 April 1915 - 10 April 1916, p380) and likely ADUR, Fondo Secretaria General de Gobierno (Siglo XX), Sección 6 Gobierno, Serie 6.7 Correspondencia, caja 7, nombre 57.

Durango

Some notes are dated December 1914.

In a later telegram to CarranzaCEHM, Fondo XXI-4, telegram Arrieta to Carranza 13 January 1916 Arrieta acknowledged that he had issued the following amounts. These might be just the Durango notes or might include the Topia notes (above).

Date on notes Denom. Series Number from to Value Total
December 1914  $1   24,677 1 24677 $24,677 $105,097
$5   16,084 1 16,084 80,420

 

A second issue was dated March 1915.

In a later telegram to CarranzaCEHM, Fondo XXI-4, telegram Arrieta to Carranza 13 January 1916 Arrieta acknowledged that he had issued the following amounts:

Date on notes Denom. Series Number from to Value Total
March 1915     $1 SB 17,000 1 17000 $10,000  
$5 SB 23,292 1 23292 116,460  
$10 SA 10,991 1 10991 109,910  
SB 20,250 1 20250 202,500  
SD 3,579 2624 6221 35,970 $474,840

Further Arrieta issues

There were two futher issues. These are a $5 note, dated August 1915, and a $10 note, dated October 1915 (marked TRANSITORIO (temporary) and later listed by Arrieta as a provisional issueCEHM, Fondo XXI-4, telegram Arrieta to Carranza 13 January 1916). They are the same design with a vignette of Justice as a $2 note, which is dated February 1915, but carries the signatures of the Villista Saravia, Olargaray and Gaxiola. Both the Saravia $2 note and the Arrieta $5 note refer to a decree of 12 December 1914 (but this is probably an error for 12 December 1913).

with three signatures

These $5 and $10 notes, as well as earlier Arrieta issues, Arrieta issues revalidated by the Convention, and Saravia issues are known with the same two seals (GOBIERNO CONSTITUCIONALISTA – DURANGO and DIRECCION GRAL. DE RENTAS – DURANGO and year date) on the reverse.

In addition, the $5 has the same reverse design as Garcia’s $5 issue of the following month, and is known with a (pre- issue) revalidation by Garcia’s administration, dated October 1915.

In his later telegram to CarranzaCEHM, Fondo XXI-4, telegram Arrieta to Carranza 13 January 1916 Arrieta acknowledged that he had issued the following amounts:

Date on notes Denom. Series Number from to Value  Total
August 1915     $5   1,000 1 1000 $25,000 $431,000 
October 1915 $10 A   1 400 406,000

 

(Again, the numbers in the telegram do not add up)