Private issues (Gómez Palacio and the rest of Durango)

Durango privates

Mapimí

Compañía Agrícola del Tiahualilo

A $1 and a $10 vale are known from this ranch. The second, dated 13 October 1913, was time-limited to ten days and redeemable in the hacienda's tienda de raya.

Gómez Palacio

On 31 August 1913 it was reported that General Domingo B. Yuriar had met with the principal companies in the Laguna Comarca and would make an issue of $100,000 in bonos, to meet his costs. The issue would be fully guaranteed and circulate freelyEl Demócrata, Segunda Época, Tomo II, Núm. 6, 31 August 1913.

Rather than a military issue this seems to refer to vales issued by the Compañía Industrial Jabonera de la Laguna and the Compañía Algodonera e Industrial de la Laguna of Gómez Palacio. These refer to a contract (escritura pública número 788) of 21 August 1913. The notes carry clause four of the undertaking on their reverse. This stated that the notes would circulated as long as the loan that the companies had made remained unpaid but that as soon the companies were paid they would redeem their vales in notes or chequesQUARTA. – Los vales a que se refieren las clausulas anteriores entrarán en circulación desde la fecha de su [ ] y continuarán así por todo el tiempo que permanezca insoluta la deuda pero tan luego como ésta sea cubierta las Compañías prestamistas procederán inmediatamente a la amortización de los vales, mediante el pago en efectivo o cheques.

Compañía Industrial Jabonera de la Laguna

la Esperanza


The Compañía Industrial Jabonera was organized in 1898 by the Terrazas-family, Juan Brittingham, a North American, and Tomás Mendrichaga, a Monterrey industrialist, landowner, and president of the Banco Mercantil de Monterrey, as a cooperative venture joining the interests of cottonseed producers and processors. The company manufactured cottonseed soap, and, most important, glycerine, a key element in high explosives. Although after 1902 a bitter dispute arose between the cotton planters and the company over the low prices paid for seed, the Jabonera was typical of Enrique Creel's ambitious efforts to coordinate the business activities of various regional elites and to extend his family's economic empire beyond the borders of Chihuahua.

The Compañía Industrial Jabonera was intrinsically connected with the Compañía Nacional Mexicana de Dinamita y Explosiva, which epitomized the profitable combination of regional, national, and foreign interests and the importance of political influence during the Diaz era. Established by the Terrazas-Creels, Brittingham, the Financiera por la Industria en México (a consortium of Mexico City investors), and the Societe Centrale de Dynamite of France, the company obtained a concession to manufacture dynamite in Mexico. With the cooperation of the Mexican government (the sons of both Porfirio Diaz and Jose Y. Limantour were on the board of directors) which raised the tariff on imported explosives and exempted the company from all import duties, the new trust acquired a monopoly on dynamite sales. The Terrazas-Creels profited doubly by selling glycerine from their Jabonera operation at high prices to the dynamite monopoly and then selling dynamite at high prices to desperate mine owners. Despite its obviously detrimental effect on the mining industry, the powerful trust operated unchecked.

Compañía Algodonera e Industrial de la Laguna

In late February 1914 the Jefe Politico of Torreón, Silvestre Dorador, prohibited companies from issuing paper money or tarjetas de valor. He gave them 15 days to withdraw their issues or face punishment under the law¡Patria Libre!, Tomo II, Núm. 20, 17 February 1914. Ironically, Dorador was a printer and so might have produced some of these vales.

On 24 April Pastor Rouaix told Coronel Manuel Madinabeitia, Villa’s Jefe del Estado Mayor in Torreón, that as the notes of the Cía. Industrial Jabonera de la Laguna and of the Cía. Algodonera were been accepted with difficulty it would be convenient to withdraw them, exchanging them for soap or wheatADUR, Libro Copiador 267, Hacienda 11 July 1913 - 25 April 1914, p987. A few days later a newspaper reported that, because of the depreciation of these two companies' notes, the government had arranged with the Jefatura de Armas in Torreón to redeem them, for the account of the state, in the Dirección General de Rentas in Torreón and in the Recaudación in Lerdo. The companies would honour the redeemed notes with soap and wheatEl Demócrata, Segunda Época, Tomo II, Núm.95, 29 April 1914.

Miguel Trad

Trad 1

Trad 1 reverse

Trad 2

Trad 2 reverse

Trad 3

Trad 3 reverse

Trad 4

Trad 4 reverse

These vales are dated 7 October 1913, the same as the bank-on-bank cheques, and will have also been issued because of the lack of currency while Gómez Palacio was cut off from the rest of the country.

Trad’s father, Miguel Trad Jacob, was originally from Lebanon so his son could be described as ‘a subject of the sultan of Turkey’. Trad senior was an architect, responsible for the Moorish style clock tower in Ciudad Lerdo. Trad himself was involved in general commission business, banking and cotton buying in the Comarca Lagunera.

He suffered during the Revolution. In July 1914 he was sued in the El Paso court with the plaintiff asking for the attachment of five carloads of cotton in the El Paso yards since Trad had not paid the rental on one plantation and 25 percent of the cotton produced on two other plantationsEl Paso Herald, 31 July 1914. In September 1914 he was sued in the same court for the payment of a draft for $28,000 U. S. drawn in Gomez PalacioEl Paso Herald, 24 September 1914.

On 16 February 1916 Trad wrote to the governor asking to be excused paying his taxes. His ranches, “Nazareno y Anexas” and “Sombreretillo y Anexas”, had been confiscated on 29 March 1915 and returned six months later, on 22 September, but in a far worse state, missing all the cotton that he had had, some of his mules, his tools and other effectsADUR, Fondo Secretaria General de Gobierno (Siglo XX), Sección 6 Gobierno, Serie 6.7 Correspondencia, caja 7, nombre 57.

He did not seem to recover as in November 1920 the Torreón press reported that he had been arrested in Mexico City and declared in bankruptcy. It was believed that the failure was probably due to large loans to the cotton raisers on premature cropsEl Paso Herald, 30 November 1920.

San Dimas

Minas de Candelaria

On 2 March 1914 representatives of the workers at the Minas de Candelaria in San Dimas complained to the Jefe Político, Rodolfo Salcido, that the company had been told by the government to withdraw the vales with which it was paying workersADUR, Fondo Secretaria General de Gobierno (Siglo XX), Sección 6 Gobierno, Serie 6.7 Correspondencia, caja 7, nombre 12.

San José de la Parilla

Jesús María Galdívar

This storekeeper issued a few vales in late 1913ADUR, Fondo Secretaría General de Gobierno (Siglo XX), Sección 6 Gobierno, Serie 6.1 Acuerdos, caja 1, nombre 3.

Eugenio Avila

This storekeeper issued a few vales in late 1913ADUR, Fondo Secretaría General de Gobierno (Siglo XX), Sección 6 Gobierno, Serie 6.1 Acuerdos, caja 1, nombre 3.