Various Constitucionalist military issues
Julian Blanco was also among the first to take military action against Porfirio Diaz’s government, attacking the military quarters in Chilpancingo, capital of Guerrero, in April 1911. Blanco served in President Madero’s forces and successfully undertook various military campaigns against Emiliano Zapata’s army. After Madero´s assassination on 9 February 1913 Blanco´s troops tried again to occupy Chilpancingo but were pushed back.
By 24 March 1914 Blanco was serving in Carranza’s Constitutionalist Army and he allied himself with the Zapatista Generals Jesús H. Salgado and Heliodoro Castillo in their campaign to take over Chilpancingo from the Federal troops of General Silvestre G. Mariscal. Mariscal’s group soon joined Carranza’s Constitutionalist Army.
On Huerta’s renouncement the disagreements between the Carrancistas and Zapatistas flared again.
On 28 March General Salgado was appointed Director of the Provisional Government of Guerrero. In July Carranza appointed Salgado the Provisional Governor but after learning that his loyalty was for the Zapatistas he cancelled the appointment. On 26 December Carranza appointed Blanco Provisional Governor and his troops embarked upon an intense military campaign against the Zapatista Army. On 31 December Chilpancingo was finally overcome and the Zapatista occupiers driven out.
Ejército Constitucionalista del Sur notes
At the beginning of 1915 the Constitutionalists issued a series of cartones. The notes are known in a variety of colours, with the serial number either handwritten or printed, and with General Canuto J. Neri’s signature or his handstamped name on the reverse.
On 5 June 1915 Governor Blanco travelled to Veracruz where he informed Carranza of his displeasure at the appointment of General Mariscal as chief of the military operations in Guerrero, as Mariscal was building up his forces and undermining Blanco’s power. On 4 August, after his return to Acapulco, Blanco was out riding near General Mariscal’s military quarters when his horse and himself were shot by a Mariscal captain. The wounded Blanco managed to get to his headquarters where he ordered Colonel Simon Díaz to attack Mariscal’s troops. However, Díaz had been bribed and stayed neutral, and Mariscal, instead, attacked Blanco’s troops and forced Blanco and his son, General Bonificio Blanco, to surrender unconditionally. Blanco’s officers and some 50 additional soldiers were shot. Blanco and his son and General Canuto J. Neri were all executed on 6 August. Mariscal explained his actions by claiming that Blanco was going to betray Carranza to Zapata, had killed his own son and then committed suicide.
After Neri’s execution some 30 Mariscal soldiers stole his funds.
On 24 March 1915 General Brigadier Mariano Barrios wrote to Carranza from Acapulco. He had come to pick up the supplies that were being sent in the gunboat Guerrero but had received only $2,000, not enough to meet what he owed to his troops, so he asked for permission to issue $50,000 as a temporary measure (bonos provisionales) to circulate until he received the necessary fundsCEHM, Fondo XXI-4 telegram General Brigadier Mariano Barrios, Acapulco to Venustiano Carranza, Veracruz, 24 March 1915.
On 18 July 1915 Teniente Coronel José L. Tapia, the Jefe de la Plaza, in Tlapa, commanding the Tercera Compañía de Infantería, wrote to Emiliano Zapata about shortages in his area. He had been ordered by General S. C. Galeana to force the circulation of the local currency (la moneda fiduciaria y papel moneda emitido en esta Ciudad) but met such resistance that it had even been proposed to amortise some of this money. Tapia was forewarning Zapata in case someone approached him and also asked what he should doAGN, Fondo Emiliano Zapata, caja 9, exp. 2, f. 47.
We know of a $1 note dated 16 October 1915.
Quinta Brigada, Iguala
This unit was the fifth brigade of the fifth division of the Army of the Northwest (Cuerpo de Ejército del Noroeste). On 1 June 1916 this 5a Brigada issued a couple of cartones (50c and $1) for local use
On the face they read ‘Ejército Constitucionalista. Cuerpo de E. del Noroeste. 5a DIVISION. 5a BRIGADA.50 cts.’ and on the reverse ‘Emisión con valor local. Este Vale será canjeable por Billete Provisional de Veracruz. Iguala, Gro., Junio 1o de 1916. Núm ……….Serie A.” The $1 note was Serie B. So these are obviously issued to address a local shortage of tostones and $1 Veracruz notes.
A couple of weeks later a new issue was changeable for infalsificables.
On face of the 50c it now read ‘Ejército Constitucionalista. Cuerpo de E. del Noroeste. 5a DIVISION. 5a BRIGADA. Núm. Serie D.’ and on the reverse ‘Vale Local. Cincuenta centavos En Billete infalsificable Igual, Gro., Junio 19 de 1916’.
Ejército Constitucionalista, Taxco
A similiar issue of three values (25c, 50c and $1) was made in Taxco, dated 1 July 1916.