Acknowledgements

I have been researching Mexican paper money for several decades and obviously many people have helped me over the years, including the staff of numerous archives. I am especially grateful to Elmer Powell and Cory Frampton for sight of their collections and permission to use images, to Ken Tabachnik, Clyde Hubbard and Rick and Kent Ponterio for letting them study documents and to the major dealers in Mexico, Duane Douglas, Bob Briggs and Angel Fregoso and to Huston Pearson in the US.

In establishing this website I have begun with some low-hanging fruit by cannibalising articles from the USMexNA journals and from the USMexNa online library. I have tried to acknowledge others’ contribution within the text, and where I have lifted articles substantially intact, as in the case of Cedrián López-Bosch or Nicholas Follansbee, I have given them their own byline.

I am now also working through the papers that Dick Long amassed during his time as a dealer and researcher and which he handed over to Cory Frampton, so need to add his name to the roll of honour. In addition to spending thousand of hours recording serial numbers etc. Dick also produced the tracings of the signatures that I have reproduced on these pages.

I shall try to ensure that all contributions are acknowledged and apologise to anyone who has been overlooked or feels slighted.

Archives

Over the years I have visited numerous archives in the United States and Mexico, some several times. In the beginning I had to take photocopies and make handwritten notes, usually transcribing documents in full in case, in summarizing, I missed nuances. Nowadays I can speed the process up with a digital camera and a laptop but these have allowed me to become even more anal.

I have to acknowledge the patience and helpfulness of people in Mexican archives who, when confronted with someone who can speed-read old documents in Spanish but has difficulty in putting together a coherent sentence, never failed to go out of their way to be helpful.

I have made as much use as I can of primary sources but the results are necessarily patchy, among other reasons because it seems that when revolutionaries were not busy printing or restamping money they were busy sacking archives. Often only documentation from the victorious side survives.

Archives are referred to by the following abbreviations.

ABarragán

Fondo Juan Barragán Rodríguez

  www.ahunam.unam.mx/consultar_fcu?id=3.3  
ABCS Archivo Histórico “Pablo L. Martínez”      
ABNC       Papers of the American Bank Note Company
ACoah Archivo General del Estado de Coahuila

Juan Aldama 381 esquina General Cepeda,
Zona Centro,
25000 Saltillo,
Coahuila

(844) 490-30-16 and 488-53-49

   
ADur Archivo Histórico de Durango      
AGN Archivo General de la Nación     The Fondo Antiguos Bancos de Emisión contains records from the Bancos de Aguascalientes,  Chiapas, Minero de Chihuahua, Comercial de Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Guanajuato, Guerrero, Oriental de México,  Querétaro, San Luis Potosí, Tabasco, Mercantil de Veracruz and Zacatecas.
AHBanamex Archivo Histórico Banamex      
AHCDMX
Archivo Histórico del Ciudad de México

República de Chile  8 esquina con Donceles,
Centro,
06010 Ciudad de México

0155 55108582

https://www.cultura.cdmx.gob.mx/recintos/archivo-historico   
AHDN Archivo Histórico de la Defensa Nacional      
AHEA Archivo Histórico del Estado de Aguascalientes

Calle Juan de Montoro 215,
Zona Centro,
20000 Aguascalientes, Aguascalientes

+52 449 918 5521

   
AHEC Archivo Histórico del Estado de Colima      
AHEM Archivo Histórico del Estado de México      
AHES

Archivo Historico del Estado de Sonora

Garmendia 157 Sur, entre Serdán y Elías Calles,
Centro,
83000 Hermosillo,
Sonora

2170556

   
AHMM Archivo Histórico y Museo de Minería

Javier Mina 110,
Centro,
42000 Pachuca de Soto,
Hidalgo

+52 771 715 0976

  You need to register as an investigator (36 hours notice) before you can study documents
AHTlax Archivo Histórico del Estado de Tlaxcala

Privada Luis Donaldo Colosio 1,
San Pablo Apetatitlán,
Cuahuatzala,
90600 Tlaxcala,
Tlaxcala

+52 246 464 5612

   
AHV Archivo Histórico Municipal de Veracruz

Avenida Landero y Coss esquina Esteban Morales s/n,
91700 Veracruz,
Veracruz

   
AHX Archivo Histórico Municipal de Xalapa

Clavijero 10 Altos,
91000 Xalapa,
Veracruz

   
AIF Acervo Isidro Fabela

Centro Cultural Isidro Fabela – Museo Casa del Risco
Plaza de San Jacinto No. 5 y 15
San Angel Delegación Alvaro Obregón
Ciudad de México


+52 (55) 56 16 27 11
+52 (55) 55 50 92 86

www.isidrofabela.org.mx Housed in a wonderful building in San Angel, Mexico City.
AJ Archivo Histórico del Estado de Jalisco

Av. prolongación Alcalde 1855,
Miraflores,
44280 Guadalajara,
Jalisco

38192469

   
AMCol Archivo Histórico del Municipio de Colima

Independencia 79, Colonia Centro.
28000 Colima,
Colima

(312) 312 28 57

http://www.casadelarchivo.gob.mx/   
AMGuad Archivo Municipal de Guadalajara Salvador Gómez García

Esmeralda 2486,
Col. Verde Valle ,
44550 Guadalajara, Jalisco


(33) 1201 7999, 3122 6581

   
AMMat Archivo Histórico Municipal de Matamoros

Museo Casamata,
Santos Degollado s/n esq. Guatemala,
87360 Matamoros,  Tamaulipas

(868) 813 59 29

http://casamata.matamoros.gob.mx/casamata-en-linea/ gracias a Martín Rodríguez Arellano
AMMon Archivo Municipal de Monclova
Hinojosa 208,
25700 Monclova, Mexico

(866) 633 8836
 
   
AMMont Archivo Histórico del Municipio de Monterrey      
AMMor Archivo Histórico Municipal de Morelia

Galeana 302,
Centro,
58000 Morelia,
Michoacán

(443) 322 9530

 www.archivohistoricodemorelia.blogspot.com/  
AMO Archivo Histórico Municipal de Orizaba “José María Naredo”

Sur 9 núm. 224
Centro
 94300 Orizaba, Veracruz

(272) 728 96 25

   
AMPar Archivo Municipal de Hidalgo del Parral     The best setting in Mexico for an archive
AMPue Archivo Municipal de Puebla      
AMQ Archivo Municipal de Querétaro

Blvd. Bernando Quntana,
Centro Sur,
Querétaro 76090

(442) 238 77 00

   
AMS Archivo Municipal de Saltillo Juárez y Leona Vicario, s/n.
Col. Zona Centro,
Saltillo,
Coahuila

(844) 414-43-70 
www.archivomunicipaldesaltillo.info   
AMT Archivo Municipal de Tampico      
AMTor Archivo Municipal de Torreón "Eduardo Guerra"

Calle Manuel Acuña 140,
Constancia,
27000 Torreón,
Coahuila

(871) 716 0913

   
AMTol Archivo Histórico Municipal de Toluca      
AMZac Archivo Histórico del Municipio de Zacatecas

Calzada Héroes de Chapultepec 1110,
Lázaro Cárdenas,
98040 Zacatecas, Zacatecas

   
AMZam Archivo Municipal de Zamora “Arturo Rodríguez Zetina"

Hidalgo No. 291,
59600 Zamora,
Michoacán

(351) 51 5 43 53

   
ANL Archivo Histórico de Nuevo León      
APGonzález Archivo Pablo González Garza      
AQ Archivo Histórico del Estado de Querétaro

Madero núm. 70,
Centro Histórico,
76000 Querétaro

(442) 227 1800

www.queretaro.gob.mx/ArchivoH/  
ASalvatierra Archivo Histórico Municipal de Salvatierra

Calle 16 de Septiembre 311,
Zona Centro,
38900 Salvatierra,
Gto
 

   okay dokay
ASDN Archivo de la Secretaría de la Defensa Nacional      
ASIN        
ASLP Archivo Histórico del Estado de San Luis Potosí, Lic. Antonio Rocha

Mariano Arista 400,
Centro Historico,
78000 San Luis Potosí,
S.L.P

(444) 814 2669

www.archivohistoricoslp.gob.mx/  
ATreviño Fondo Jacinto Blas Treviño in Archivo UNAM   www.ahunam.unam.mx/consultar_fcu?id=3.21  
AV

Archivo General del Estado de Veracruz

Hermenegildo Galeana s/n esq. Venustiano Carranza,
Col. Francisco I. Madero,
91070, Xalapa
   
CEHM Archivo Centro de Estudios de Historia de México     Important collections include
LG papers  Lázaro de la Garza papers

Nettie Lee Benson Latin American Collection
Sid Richardson Hall,
2300 Red River St,
Austin,
Texas 78712

512-495-4520

https://legacy.lib.utexas.edu/taro/utlac/00075/lac-00075p1.html   
SD papers Records of the Department of State Relating to Internal Affairs of Mexico, 1910-1929      

 

 

 

 

Periódicos Oficiales

Each state had its own Periódico Oficial, the official bulletin for the text of important local and national decrees, statutory notices, judgements and, occasionally, an eclectic range of local and international news, historical episodes, informative articles and homilies. They tried to maintain continuity so whenever a rival faction took over it would publish its own version, but with the obvious disruptions and the lack of newsprint there are unfortunately gaps. In addition different factions sometimes produced competing versions.

States were meant to send a copy to the Biblioteca Nacional in Mexico City but, apart from the states neighbouring the capital, this stopped between the removal of Huertista governors and the re-establishment of some kind of order under the Carrancistas.
In the footnotes where a reference is given as Periódico Oficial this means the official bulletin of the particular state in question (the provenance should be obvious from the text) unless specifically stated otherwise.

Memorias

The Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Publíco published annual Memorias (available to download from https://memoriasdehacienda.colmex.mx/mh/index.php). Less well known is the fact that from the 1880s through to the first decades of the twentieth century it also published annual Memorias de las Instituciones del Crédito. These recorded its oversight of the banks and included legislation, correspondence and the half-yearly reports of the Interventors of the various banks. Some reports are very cursory (for example, those for the Banco de Sonora) but others are very meticulous, recording dates and details of issues and incinerations and other problems with the banks.

All in all, these Memorias are a priceless source of knowledge but also extremely difficult to find.

It is worth digressing with an anecdote. In 2010 I was in Mexico City researching then just the banks of Sonora and Chihuahua. I went to the Secretaria’s library, the Biblioteca Miguel Lerdo de Tejada, and finally managed to persuade them of the differences between the commonplace Memorias and these Memorias de las Instituciones del Crédito. Unfortunately it transpired that the latter were to be found in another part of the library, the Capilla Rosa within the National Palace, and this was closed for long-term refurbishment. Nonetheless, they were willing to open up the Capilla for me and for a couple of days I worked in glorious isolation, photographing all the pages that I wanted, watched by a minder from the Secretaría. I wish I could remember his name, and that of his boss, for a gesture that I doubt I would have received from any British or American institution.

Newspapers

At times Mexico had a vibrant press but during the revolution partiality, official or self-imposed censorship, and (in some areas) lack of paper, meant that, with the exception of Mexico City, newspapers were rare, and one had more chance of learning of the fortunes of the Allies on the Western Front than of any fighting nearer to home.

Incomplete (and increasingly fragile) collections of many local newspapers are in local archives, which means the avid researcher has to travel, but the Biblioteca Nacional holds the national collection and has put many titles online (http://www.hndm.unam.mx/index.php/es/)

As I result of my research I have built up sizeable files, sometimes up to a couple of hundred pages, recording the mention of paper currency in state, municipal or private archives, newspapers or Periódicos Oficiales. If you are interested in a particular archive, please contact me.