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Riveros’ definitive issue

On 20 November 1914 General Riveros declared himself a Villista and left Culiacán to establish his government in San Blas.

In January 1915 Riveros wrote to the American Bank Note Company, New York for a quote to replace his provisional issues with a definitive issue (as Maytorena was doing in Sonora). The ABNC replied with quotations for 1,225,000 notes in five lower denominations and 87,000 notes in three higher denominations, but no other correspondence is on fileABNC, . On 22 February 1915, in decree núm. 1, Riveros had revised the quantities:

  Series   Total
value
25c A-J  400,000 $   100,000
50c A-J 400,000 200,000
$1 A-J  400,000 400,000
$5 A-J 80,000 400,000
$10 A-J 90,000 900,000
$20 A-J 75,000 1,500,000
$50 A-J 20,000 1,000,000
$100 A-J 5,000 500,000
      $5,000,000

 

The signatures of the governor, Riveros, and Secretario General, José G. Heredia, were to appear in facsimile on all values and the signatures of the Tesorero General, Matías Ayala, and Interventor, Ignacio Bermúdez, in facsimile on the three lower values and handwritten on the $5  to $100 (in fact they were printed in error on the three higher values).

RiverosFelipe Riveros Pérez was born in Mocorito, Sinaloa on 5 February 1880. He was president of the Club Antireeleccionista in Angostura in 1910, being a personal friend of Francisco Madero, and later rose in arms, rising to the rank of general. On 26 March 1912, when Governor José Rentería was forced to flee, Riveros was named interim governor and then won the election for the four-year term beginning 27 September 1912. In February 1913 he at first acknowledged Huerta’s usurpation but Huerta had him arrested and taken to Mexico City. He was tried for treason but acquitted and fled back to Sinaloa, where the rebels established themselves at San Blas. On 5 July Carranza recognized Riveros as governor of Sinaloa (though it was not legally in his power to do so Carranza was trying to establish himself as Primer Jefe).

When Villa broke with Carranza Riveros supported the former, With the Villistas being pursued by forced under Coronel Ignacio Gurrola, he had to flee, leaving behind typewriters, telephones, $112,000 of his own issue, cars, horses etc. In Chihuahua he fell out with Villa who ordered his execution, though the assassins killed his brother Jesús by mistake.

He later returned to Sinaloa and devoted himself to agriculture. He died on his hacienda La Providencia on 5 May 1945.

sig Riveros

José G. Heredia was born in Llano Grande, Sinaloa, in 1886.

As well as serving as Secretario General de Gobierno and a federal Senator, he was a distinguished historian, writing Apuntes para la historia de la guerra de Independencia en el Estado de Sinaloa.

He died in 1962.

sig Heredia
Matías Ayala was a student activistBoth José G. Heredía and Matías Ayala represented the Colegio Rosales, of Sinaloa, at the Congreso Nacional de Estudiantes in September 1910 (El Tiempo, 9 August 1910), one of the organisers for Diego Redo’s candidature in 1909La Iberia, Año IV, Núm. 943, 13 July 1909 and then secretary to Felipe Riveros during his governorship. In early 1913 four men from Culiacán, including Matías Ayala and Ignacio Bermúdez, were accused of fomenting rebellion, arrested by the military authorities and sentenced to enlistment in the army. On 27 June they were transferred to Mexico City where they sought an amparo (injunction) and a deputation of Sinaloan students appealed to the Ministro de Gobernación on their behalfEl Imparcial, 29 June 1913; The Mexican Herald, 1 July 1913. Ayala and Gregorio Cuevas were freed from prison on condition that they did not leave the city, but in November fled back to Sinaloa to join the rebellionThe Mexican Herald, 19 November 1913. sig Ayala

Ignacio Bermúdez

In early 1913 four men from Culiacán, including Ignacio Bermúdez and Matías Ayala, were accused of fomenting rebellion, arrested by the military authorities and sentenced to enlistment in the army. On 27 June they were transferred to Mexico City where they sought an amparo (injunction) and a deputation of Sinaloan students appealed to the Ministro de Gobernación on their behalfEl Imparcial, 29 June 1913; The Mexican Herald, 1 July 1913.

sig Bermudez

 

The face had the images of Benito Juárez and Francisco Madero, and the reverse an allegory of Justice and Liberty, crowned by the national seal with a view of Culiacán on the left and of Mazatlán on the right. A million pesos of this issue were to be used to redeem the provisional notes of decrees 3, 11, 14 and 17.

Riveros had these notes printed by Britton & Rey, a well-established lithography firm located in San Francisco, California, probably because of cost and a quicker delivery though Britton & Rey had produced a prodigious body of early California town views and so were well-suited to engrave panoramas of Culiacán and Mazatlán. The contracts were placed on 30 January and 1 February 1915. The $5 and $10 notes were printed first (with the Tesorero and Interventor signatures blank); the low values next, and the high values last. These $20, $50 and $100 notes were shipped on 3 July 1915letter Britton & Rey to Riveros, Culiacán, 2 July 1915 but as the printers had mistakenly printed them with four facsimile signatures they were not acceptedletter Riveros to Britton and Rey, 29 July 1915 (lot 26420. Heritage Auctions, 7 January 1915).

There were five security features on the $5 and $10 valuesletter Britton & Rey to Riveros, 12 March 1915:

At the foot of the woman is the name of the designer, X. Kraemer. Estado detail 1
In the lower left corner there is an image of the Mexican eagle.
This image is repeated at the left side of Madero’s portrait, as part of the tint plate
In the lower right corner, in the wreath bordering Madero’s portrait, there is a small monogram“E.S.”(for Estado de Sinaloa).
This monogram is repeated over the word “Al” in the phrase “AL PORTADOR EN EFECTIVO”, as part of the tint plate.


For the higher values the printers utilized a trick copied from American notes, namely two sets of serial numbers, one of which is a fictitious control. On the $20 and $50 notes on series A to E the red numbers in the two lower corners were the consecutive numbers and the blue numbers in the centre were the control whilst on series F to J the red numbers were fictitious and the blue numbers authentic. For the $100 notes the red numbers were authentic and the blue fictitious, and a green inverted Y was added on top of the blue numbers as an additional security measureletter Britton & Rey to Riveros, Culiacán, 2 July 1915.

We can presume that note with a 'TESORERIA GENERAL DEL ESTADO - SINALOA' stamp on the reverse or (for higher values) two additional hand signatures were issued (or intended to be issued) whilst the rest were remaindered. So the $20, $50 and $100 values were not issued because they were wrongly printed.

  Series from to total
number
total
value
 
25c A  101 40100 40,000 $     10,000 with Tesorería stamp



B  40101  80100  40,000  10,000
C 80101 120100 40,000  10,000
D  120101 160100  40,000  10,000
E  160101 200100 40,000  10,000
F 200101 240100 40,000  10,000 unstamped
G 240101 280100 40,000  10,000
H 280101  320100  40,000 10,000
I 320101 360100  40,000  10,000
J 360101 400100  40,000 10,000
50c A  101  40100  40,000 20,000 with Tesorería stamp

B 40101 80100  40,000  20,000
C  80101 120100  40,000  20,000
D 120101 160100  40,000  20,000 unstamped
E  160101 200100 40,000  20,000
F 200101 240100  40,000  20,000
G 240101 280100  40,000  20,000
H 280101 320100  40,000  20,000
I  320101 360100  40,000 20,000
J 360101 400100  40,000  20,000
$1 A  1001  41000 40,000 40,000 with Tesorería stamp
B 41001 81000 40,000  40,000
 C   81001   40,000  40,000
  121000  40,000  40,000 unstamped

D 121001 161000  40,000  40,000
E  161001 201000  40,000  40,000 unstamped
but includes number 160914CNBanxico #6125
F 201001 241000  40,000  40,000 unstamped
G  241001 281000  40,000 40,000
H  281001 321000  40,000  40,000
I  321001 361000  40,000  40,000
J  361000  401000  40,000  40,000
$5 A 1001  9000 8,000  40,000 with Tesorería stamp and two hand signatures
B 9001 17000  8,000   40,000
C 17001 25000  8,000   40,000
D 25001 33000 8,000   40,000
E  33001 41000 8,000   40,000
F 41001       40,000 unstamped
includes number 44497CNBanxico #6128 to 44500CNBanxico #6130
   49000  8,000 with Tesorería stamp and two hand signatures
includes number 47619CNBanxico #6134
G  49001  57000 8,000  40,000 unstamped


H 57001  65000 8,000   40,000
I 65001 73000 8,000   40,000
J  73001 81000  8,000   40,000
$10 A  1001  10000  9,000  90,000 with Tesorería stamp and two hand signatures
B  10001  19000  9,000  90,000
C 19001 28000 9,000 90,000 
D 28001 37000 9,000 90,000 
E  37001 46000 9,000 90,000
F 46001 55000 9,000 90,000 unstamped
G 55001  64000  9,000  90,000
H  64001 73000 9,000 90,000
I  73001 82000 9,000  90,000
J  82001 91000 9,000 90,000 
$20 A 10000 17500  7,500  150,000 unstamped  
red numbers are sequential
B 17501 25000   7,500  150,000
C 25001 32500  7,500   150,000
D 32501 40000   7,500  150,000
E 40001 47500   7,500  150,000
F 47501 55000   7,500  150,000 unstamped  
blue numbers are sequential
 
G 55001 62500   7,500  150,000
H  62501 70000  7,500  150,000
I 70001 77500   7,500  150,000
J 77501 85000   7,500  150,000
$50 A 10001 12000 2,000 100,000 unstamped  
red numbers are sequential
B 12001 14000 2,000  100,000
  14001 16000 2,000  100,000
D 16001 18000  2,000  100,000
E  18001  20000  2,000 100,000
F 20001 22000  2,000  100,000 unstamped  
blue numbers are sequential
G 22001 24000  2,000  100,000
H 24001 26000  2,000  100,000
I 26001 28000  2,000  100,000
J 28001 30000  2,000  
$100 A  10001  10500  500  50,000 unstamped  
red numbers are sequential
B  10501  11000  500  50,000
C  11001  11500  500  50,000
D  11501  12000  500  50,000
E 12001 12500 500 50,000
F  12501  13000 500  50,000
G  13001  13500  500  50,000
H  13501  14000  500  50,000
I  14001  14500 500 50,000
J  14501  15000  500  50,000
      1,070,000 $5,000,000  

 

For notes with a typewritten or handwritten legend on back, or a Brigada Juárez resello, see Luis Herrera.

Pioneer advert reverse

Decree núm. 2

Because of the pressing need for more 5c and 10c notes on 15 April Riveros also authorised an issue of $40,000 of the former and $60,000 of the latter, both serie A. Again, the decree specified the design of the notes. They were to be of forced acceptance up to $10 in a single payment.

  series from to total
number
total
value
 
5c A         includes number 36068
10c A         includes number 7651