Constitutionalist bonds

Various bonds were issued to finance the Constitutionalist revolt.

Loans

We have record of various (forced) loans early in April 1913, including the $20,000 from Max Müller of the Banco de SonoraThe list includes: in March 1913 Max Müller’s $20,000; in April two assessments (derrames) in Hermosillo for $50,000.00 and $82,000.00; $12,000 in Ures in March and $13,500 in April; in April $5,000 from F. Monineau y Hermano; in September $28,000 from T. Robinson Bours Hermanos, of Alamos; also in September and in Alamos Miguel C. Urrea gave $5,000, Joaquín S. Urrea $2,000 and General Salvador Alvarado remitted $5,750 collected from various citizens (report of Oficial Primero, 13 June 1921). Finally there is $100 from Feliciano O[ ], of Caborca, om 17 March, 215.66 from Manuel Salcido, alsoof Caborca, on 18 August, and $1,000 from the Compañía Bancaria Mercantil of Cananea on 11 July.

In 1913, while Ignacio L. Pesqueira was governor, he decreed a war tax (contribución de guerra) on various haciendas. The Hacienda “Bacanuchi”, belonging to the estate of Elena Pesqueira de Caraway, was assessed at $6,000 and received a receipt from the Tesorero General, Carlos E. Randall. Once in the capital, Elena Pesqueira, through her cousin, Roberto V. Pesqueira, tried to get the central government to repay her, which she had all but achieved when Carranza fell. Adolfo de la Huerta, in his turn, was minded to pay, but Pesqueira had lost her receipt, and so asked for a certified copyAGHES Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417, letter S. López Alvarado, Mexico City, to Secretario de Gobierno, 1 October 1921. On 9 November the Tesorero General replied that they had looked in the archives but could not find the files, since the Maytorenista government had taken the major part of the archives for 1913 through to 1915 with themAGHES Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417, letter Secretario de Gobierno, to López Alvarado, 9 November 1921: letter.

On 5 May 1913 at a meeting in Altar the Governor’s special commissioner Alberto B. Piña met with the mayor cattle-producers of the district. Piña explained that he was commissioned to purchase cattle, to be exported to the State to obtain resources to pursue the revolution, and a committee was appointed to collect 3,000 head of cattle, to be delivered between 15 May and 20 July. The cattle were to be paid for by means of State bonds, with receipts given in the meantimeAGHES, Fondo Oficialía Mayor, tomo 2959.

Subsidio forzoso de Guerra

On 14 August 1913 Maytorena decree a forced loan on notorious enemies to the Constitutional cause to cover the costs of warEl Estado de Sonora, núm. 13, 16 August 1913. However, this decree was derogated in December because it failed to produce positive results and did not have Carranza’s approvalOn 26 December 1913 Felipe Riveros, the governor of Sinaloa, asked Maytorena to send him the rules and regulations establishing his forced loan (subsidio forzoso de Guerra) (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2950 telegram Felipe Riveros, Culiacán, to Maytorena, Hermosillo, 26 December 1913, now missing in Archive so taken from colección Manuel González Ramírez 93/61) but Maytorena replied that the forced loan would be abolished within five days because it had failed to produce positive results and did not have Carranza’s approval. It was replaced by a surcharge (contribución adicional). However, he sent the relevant decree (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2950 telegram Maytorena, Hermosillo to Felipe Riveros, Culiacán, 26 December 1913, now missing in Archive so taken from colección Manuel González Ramírez 93/63) and was replaced by a new surcharge (contribución adicional).

1913 bonds

On 10 April 1913 Interim Governor Ignacio L. Pesqueira authorised (decree núm. 4) the issue of a million pesos in interest-bearing bonds, to be sold to individuals, corporations or companies (though not to foreign governments or bodiesThe Constitutionalists saw bonds (and paper currency) as a method by which Mexicans could contribute to the cost of the revolution. They did not want to be indebted to foreign interests.). The notes were to be in three denominations ($100, $500 and $1,000), signed by the Governor, Secretary of State and Treasurer General, payable to the bearer, readily transferable and redeemed in tranches selected by twice-yearly lots over a period of ten yearsEl Estado de Sonora, 11 April 1913. The bonds were printed by the Government Press (Imprenta de Gobierno) in thirty-one booksAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, letter Enrique Monkrendi, Director de la Imprenta del Gobierno, Hermosillo to José Rodriguez, Comisionado Visitador de la Tesorería General, Hermosillo, to Enrique Monkrendi, Director de la Imprenta del Gobierno, Hrmosillo, 23 October 1913. The text of such a bond was
Bono Número 120 - Serie B - $500·00 El Gobierno del Estado de Sonora pagará al portador la suma de QUINIENTOS PESOS, en los términos que previene el Decreto número 4 de fecha 10 de abril de 1913, expedido por el Ejécutivo del Estado de conformidad con las facultades que le confiere la ley Número 107 de 14 de diciembre de 1912 y la ley Número 117 de 25 de febrero de 1913 - Hermosillo - junio 18 de 1913 - El Gobernador del Estado - I. L. Pesqueira - El Tesorero Gral - A. Lewels - El Srio. General - Lorenzo Rozado
whilst on the reverse it carried references to the relevant decrees. (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3492)
.

BooksBonds
in each
ValueSeriesNumber range
20 100 $100 C 1-2000
6 100 $500 B 1-600
5 100 $1000 A 1-500

 

Robert Pesqueira, in Tucson, and Ignacio Bonillas, in Nogales, Sonora, had already been commissioned to find takers for the bondsAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 letters I. L. Pesqueira, Hermosillo to R. Pesqueira, Tucson, and I. Bonilla, Nogales, 3 April 1913. On 16 April the government sent one book containing 100 $1,000 bonds (Series A, 1-100) to Pesqueira and another (Series A, 101-200) to Bonillas, both of whom were in NogalesAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 letters I. L. Pesqueira, Hermosillo to R. Pesqueira, Nogales, and I. Bonilla, Nogales, 16 April 1913. Pesqueira later received another three books of $1,000 bonds and one of $500 bonds, so in total he received $450,000AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965.

A $500 bond issued to Jesús Ramos on 25 April was later exchanged on 29 August 1923 in accordance with circular núm. 29 of 29 June 1921'Inasmuch as the records in the Government Offices concerning the bonds issued by the government of General Ignacio L. Pesqueira are incomplete and therefore the amount of these said bonds and other debts contracted in the same period is unknown, the State Executive has thought it expedient to issue a Circular so that people who are owed money by the State in the manner stated will present their titles to the General Secretariat of Government, in whose office a Register will be opened, within a period of four months from 15 July of the present year.' (Boletín Oficial, 12 July 1921)

Bonillas sold five $1,000 bonds to Ignacio Molina, of Cananea(?), in return for cheques drawn in the First National Bank of Douglas (and some safe-conducts)AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 telegram M. Bonillas, Prefecto of Cananea to I. L. Pesqueira, Hermosillo, 29 April 1913.

On 2 May a book of 100 $500 bonds (Serie B, 1-100) was sent to Cesáreo G. Soriano, Customs Administrator at Agua PrietaAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, letter Secretario General, Hermosillo, to Soriano, Agua Prieta, 2 May 1913. On 6 May Luis. G. Hernández was also commissioned to sell bonds, both within Mexico and abroadAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, letter Governor, Hermosillo, to Hernández, 6 May 1913. On 16 May fourteen $100 bonds (Serie A, 1-14) were sent to the Prefect of Magdalena to give to Abundio Elías of Santa Cruz (in payment for cattle)AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, letter Secretario General, Hermosillo to Prefecto, Magdalena, 16 May 1913.

On 21 May Silvestre Terrazas and Juan Neftali Amador were commissioned as (part of) the Junta Constitucionalista del Estado de Chihuahua to acquire the funds necessary for their cause, though as, unlike in Sonora and Coahuila, there was no Constitutionalist government in Chihuahua, they could not enact legal decrees. The next day they wrote from the Mills Building in El Paso to Ignacio L. Pesquiera, Governor of Sonora, asking for a loan of $10,000 or $20,000 (or rather 20 or 40 bonds of $500 each in the expectation that they would then place the bonds) and to Roberto Pesqueira, the Constitutionalist Confidential Agent in Washington, asking him to support their requestST papers, part I , box 83.

On 24 May ten bonds of $500 (Serie B, 101-110) were issued in Nogales B101-102 to José Marrarger for goods received during the 1910 revolution, B103-104 to Cónsul Chrayar (alternative Anaya (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3729 report of Ricardo Diaz, Contador Mayor de Glosa, 27 September 1924)), B105 to Ramón Salazar (in payment for cattle), and B106-110 to Donnadieu Hermanos (also for cattle) (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, report of José Rodriguez, C. V. de la Tesorería General, Hermosillo, 15 October 1913). Two of these were redeemed by the Governor on 16 April 1925 (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3729, Governor to Tesorero General, 5 November 1925) but the others were refused by the State Congress on 5 November 1925 because of the critical state of Sonora’s finances (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3729, Acuerdo of state congress, 5 November 1925).. In late May Bonilla arranged with Carlos Harman Jury to buy a printing pressthe press was being used to print newspapers such as Justicia, critical of the regime, so this was an attempt to stamp down on the opposition (AGHE, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2993) and $4,000 in bonds (B111-118) were issued to Francisco M. Hernández as the priceAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, telegram I. L. Pesqueira, Hermosllo, to I. Bonillas, Cananea, 23 May 1913. Jury asked for the bonds to be made out to him, rather than Hernández (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, telegram Jury, Cananea, to Governor, Hermosillo, 30 May 1913) but the bonds (B111-118) were issued to Hernández on 30 May. Bonds B111-115 were recorded as issued to F. M. Fernandez (sic) in Cananea for a press: bonds B116-118 are recorded as to an unknown recipient but would have been Hernández (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, report of José Rodriguez, C. V. de la Tesorería General, Hermosillo, 15 October 1913).

On 27 May Alfredo Durazo of Oputo took $3,000 in bondsAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, telegram Plutarco E. Calles, Agua Prieta, to Governor, Hermosillo, 27 May 1913.

On 10 June A. C. Villaseñor, Prefecto of the Distrito of Magdalena, reported from Nogales that $3,000 in bonds that the governor had left had been used to pay the accounts of Ramón Vázquez ($187.50) and Escalada Bros. ($2,812.50)AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 letter Lewels, Hermosillo, to Secretario General, 4 June 1913.

On 16 June Roberto Pesqueira, from Eagle Pass, asked Angel J. Lagarda to send him $100,000 in bondsAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 Lagarda, Agua Prieta, to Governor, Hermosillo, 16 June 1913, presumably because he thought that he had buyers. Ignacio Pesqueira agreed that Soriano should send them, as he had that amountAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 Governor, Hermosillo, to Soriano, Agua Prieta, 17 June 1913 and Soriano sent a book of 87 bonds, Serie C, 14-100AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 Lagarda, Agua Prieta, to Governor, Hermosillo, 19 June 1913.

On 18 June two $500 bonds (B119 and B120) were issued in Hermosillo to an unknown recipientAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, report of José Rodriguez, C. V. de la Tesorería General, Hermosillo, 15 October 1913 so the booklet must have been returned from the north. On 30 June another 38 $500 bonds were issued in HermosilloBonds B121-150 to Miguel Latre y Hermano, B151-156 no details recorded, B157 and B158 to B. S. Pelzer for purchases of beans (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, report of José Rodriguez, C. V. de la Tesorería General, Hermosillo, 15 October 1913). The last two bonds (and another for $100) were cashed by Pelzer on 8 October 1913 (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, Tesorero General Randall, to Governor, Hermosillo, 8 October 1913)..

On 29 June Roberto Pesqueira reported to Governor Pesqueira from Agua Prieta that the Columna Villa had neither recourses nor provisions. He would send Lagarda to Cananea in the morning to raise funds with bonds from Molina and Rafael Elías. He thought they could raise $20,000 with easeAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2950 telegram R. V. Pesqueira, Agua Prieta, to governor I. L. Pesqueira, Hermosillo, 29 June 1913, now missing in Archive so taken from colección Manuel González Ramírez 91/315. However, Pesqueira replied that Molina had already bought bonds and Elías had given cattle, goods and provisions, so he did not think they could raise that much, but was asking Prefecto Bonillas to give Lagarda as much help as possible{ footnote}AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2950 telegram governor I. L. Pesqueira, Hermosillo to R. V. Pesqueira, Agua Prieta, 30 June 1913, now missing in Archive so taken from colección Manuel González Ramírez 91/316.

In Alamos Alfredo Murillo, the Jefe de Armas, was given a book of $500 bonds to offer to potential investors. On 4 August he reported assigning $12,000 to the Señores Urrea, who agreed to pay $1,000 a month, at the same time asking about the 10% discount mentioned in the original decreeAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 Murillo, Alamos, to Governor, Hermosillo, 4 August 1913. In response, Secretario Lorenzo Rosado asked for details of bonds in his possessionAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 Rosado, Hermosillo, to Murillo, Alamos, 6 August 1913. Maytorena has resumed the governorship two days earlier: Murillo replied that he had been given 100 $500 bonds and was placing fourteen, as well as the twenty-four that the Urrea offered to takeAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 Murillo, Alamos, to Rosado, Hermosillo, 6 August 1913. On 16 August José J. Obregón, Prefecto of Alamos, sent $8,100 which had been raised from the sale of bondsout of a total remittance of $15,826.98 (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2914 telegram José J. Obregón, Alamos to Maytorena, Hermosillo, 16 August 1913). On 22 August Alvaro Obregón reported that Mayor Fermin Carpio brought $15,000 from the sale of bonds, which Obregón wanted to be used for the expenses of war (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2914 telegram Alvaro Obregón, Maytorena to Maytorena, Hermosillo, 22 August 1913) but he was probably referring to the same deposit. By 3 September José J. Obregón suggested that the wealthy of Alamos had been given enough time, and suggested that the bonds that the Jefe de Armas had be sent to HermosilloAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 telegram José J. Obregón, Alamos to Maytorena, Hermosillo, 3 September 1913. Maytorena replied by asking what bonds and what instructions the Jefe de Armas hadAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 telegram Maytorena, Hermosillo to José J. Obregón, Alamos, $ September 1913, and on being told, ratified the instructions whilst Oficial Mayor Sánchez Azcona wanted to know who had refused to take bondsAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 telegram Sánchez Azcona, Hermosillo to Prefecto, Alamos, 5 September 1913. José Maria Quiron later complained that he had been forced to take $4,000 in bondsListed in AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2983 but actual complaint missing.

We have details of some of these Alamos bonds. Bond B 501 was placed with Quong Gun Lug & Cia, Sucsbut lost when the Villistas later sacked the town (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417, letter Quong Gun Lung & Cia, Sucs., Alamos, to Governor, 13 July 1921. Bonds B 502-509 and B 516 were given to Gérman BleyThese were exchanged for 45 vales of $100 on 16 June 1920, to used in the payment of 50% of taxes, 20 made out to Rosenda Gomez Lamadrid, 10 to Germán Bley and 15 to Merceria de la Paz. S.A. (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417 letter Felipe A. Seldner (Bley’s representative), Hermosillo, 16 June 1920: letter Governor to Tesorero General, 16 June 1920). Bond B 510 was issued on 5 August to Filiberto Acostaand accepted in payment in 1925 (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3729, Governor to Tesorero General, 11 February 1925). Bonds B 514 and 515 dated 6 August and 7 August respectively were exchanged for 1923 Bonds on 30 August 1923 by Sra. Trinidad A. Viuda de Almada. On 13 August Bond B 518 was issued to Pedros S. SalazarAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417, letter Francisca Otero V. de Salazar, Alamos to Governor, 17 June 1921. Bond B 542 was issued to Carlos Hoffman of Alamos on 30 SeptemberAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3729 exp. 8.

On 27 August Maytorena asked Roberto Pesqueira for details of the bonds he had placedAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 telegram Maytorena, Hermosillo to Pesqueira, Los Angeles, 27 August 1913 and Pesqueira replied that there were $400,000 in Douglas and Washington and that he was still trying to place them but was only being offered 75% (of the face value)AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965 telegram Pesqueira, Los Angeles, to Maytorena, Hermosillo, 29 August 1913.

On 15 October the following were reported as being in the Tesorería GeneralAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, report of José Rodriguez, C. V. de la Tesorería General, Hermosillo, 15 October 1913, totally $299,500:

BooksBonds
in each
ValueSeriesfromtoTotal
value
1 86 $100 C 15 100 8,600
14 100 301 1700 140,000
1 99 1701 1756 9,900
1758 1800
2 100 1801 2000 20,000
1 42 $500 B 159 200 21,000
2 100 301 500 100,000

 

Series C 1757 was missed out by the printers.

On 24 October Tesorero General Randall pointed out to the Secretario de Estado that, as the date of the first drawing of lots was approaching, it as necessary to ascertain the correct information on the bonds issued and that they should ask the various agents for a detailed reckoningAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, letter Randall, Hermosillo, to Secretario, Hrmosillo, 24 October 1913. The previous day his Visitador had written to the government printing press for details of what they had printedAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2965, letter José Rodriguez, Comisionado Visitador de la Tesorería General, Hermosillo, to Enrique Monkrendi, Director de la Imprenta del Gobierno, Hermosillo, 23 October 1913. When the Visitador reported to the Tesorería General on 6 December 1913 he had been unable to account for $70,000 in bonds, viz.:

BooksBonds
in each
ValueSeriesfromtoTotal
value
2 100 $100 C 101 300 20,000
1 100 $500 B 201 300 50,000

 

but it can be seen that these reappeared later.

Four books, totalling $169,500, were returned to the Tesoreria General on 3 April 1914AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2983, letter Oficial Mayor to Tesorero General, 3 April 1914: tomo 3417, report, 13 June 1921. They were C 101-300 (200 of $100, or $20,000; D 201-299 (99 of $500, or $45,500, and A 401-500 (100 of $1,000, or $100,000).. Finally, on 13 April 1914 the following bonds remained unissued in the Tesorería General and were remitted to the Secretary of State for safe-keeping, a total of $514,400AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2983:

BooksBonds
in each
ValueSeriesfromtoTotal
value
1 85 $100 C 16 100 8,500
16 100 101 1700 160,000
1 99 1701 1756 9,900
1758 1800
2 100 1801 2000 20,000
1 92 $500 B 9 100 46,000
1 41 159 200 20,500
1 99 201 299 49,500
2 100 301 500 100,000
1 100 $1000 A 401 500 100,000

 

When Luis Sotomayor handed over responsibility for the Tesorería General to Jesús Ramos in December 1914 he listed firstly 243 bonds, totaling $299,400, in agreement with the 15 October report above, except that Bond A 15 for $100 had been issued to B. S. Pelzer,; and secondly another 529 bonds, totaling $234,500 (100 $1000 bonds A 401-500,totaling $100,000: 229 $500 bonds B 9-100, B 201 – 299, B 563 – 600, totaling $114,500, and 200 $100 bonds C 101 – 300, totaling $20,000). This second tranche had been received after the October visit, but Sotomayor could not recall when except that bonds B 563 – 600 had been recently sent by the Administración de Rentas in AlamosAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2991, handover folder, 15 – 22 December 1914.

In June 1921 the state Congress asked for the government to check the records in the archives and produce a report on the bonds of the Pesquiera era, but that contained errorsAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417, report, 13 June 1921: tomo 3729, . As the records were incomplete the government also asked people to present any claims. Various people submitted 1913 bonds, so we have a few more details.

So we can surmise that the bonds put into circulation were drawn from:

BooksBonds
in each
ValueSeriesfromtoTotal
value
Given
to
Recipient
1 15 $100 C 1 14 1,400 Villaseñor Abundio Elías
15   100   B. S. Pelzer(?)
1 8 $500 B 1 8 4,000 Soriano  
1 58 101 102 1,000   José Marrarger
103 104 1,000   Cónsul Anaya
105   500 Villaseñor Ramón Salazar
106 110 2,500 Donnadieu Hermanos
111 118 4,000   Francisco M. Hernández
119 120 1,000    
121 156 18,000   Miguel Latre y Hermanoalternative Miguel Latz y Hermanos
157 158 1,000   B. S. Pelzer
1 1 300   500   Luis S. Hernándezentrusted unsigned to Hernández (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2983)
1 100 501   500 Murillo Quong Gun Lung & Cia, Sucs.
502 509 4,000 Germán Bley
510   500 Filiberto Acosta
511 513 1,500  
514 515 1,000 [ ] Almada
516   500 Germán Bley
517   500  
518   500 Pedro S. Salazar
519 541 11,500  
542   500 Carlos Hoffman
543 600 29,000  
4 100 $1000 A 1 100 100,000 Pesqueira  
101 200 100,000 Bonillas  
201 400 200,000    

 

As these bonds were later redeemed or cancelled none are known to have survived.

1913 Certificados

Gonzalez Rodriguez y Cia. received certificado núm. 16, dated 17 February 1914, for $17,145.51 for godos delivered from 17 May to 28 June 1913 and Mercería de la Paz, S.A. five certificados, núm. 17-21, dated 6 March 1914, for $9,506.94 for good delivered in March to July 1913AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417, notes R. Aviles, Contador de La Tesorería General, 17 June 1921.

It seemed that there were very few takers for the bonds and so in January 1914 it was decided that they should be used to pay people who held créditos for goods requisitioned during the last ten months’ fighting. Such people were given a month to present their claims to the Tesorería GeneralEl Estado de Sonora, 20 January 1914. The period was later extended to two months for locals and four months for others (foráneos) (El Estado de Sonora, 3 February 1914).

On 8 February 1914 Tesorero General Sotomayor wrote to Maytorena to say that he was receiving enquiries from people involved in the derrame of cattle (see above) and to ask whether he could issue bonds, as per the contracts. He thought that they should ask the Prefects of the Districts of Altar and Magdalena (based in Nogales) for detailsAGHES, Fondo Oficialía Mayor, tomo 2985, letter Sotomayor to Maytorena, 8 February 1914. Maytorena agreed footnote}AGHES, Fondo Oficialía Mayor, tomo 2985, letter Maytorena to Sotomayor, 9 February 1914. Villaseñor confirmed that he had given bonds to Donnadieu Hermanos, Ramón Salazar and Abundio Elias AGHES, Fondo Oficialía Mayor, tomo 2985, letter Villaseñor, Nogales, to Secretario de Estado. Hermosilo, 13 February 1914. Florencio Pierson did not receive any bond for the 43 cattle, valued at $530, that he gave.

1914 bonds

However, due to poor book-keeping, it was found impossible to establish how many and to whom the bonds had been sold and so in order to regularise matters and proceed with the holding of the first draw on 7 March 1914 Governor Maytorena (decree núm. 42) authorised a new printing. These were to be similar to the first issue but would carry a reference to this later decree on the reverse. All the bonds of the first issue were to be exchanged for bonds of the second issue whilst those still in the Tesorería were to be cancelled with a reference to the present decree signed by the Treasurer GeneralAlcance to El Estado de Sonora, 7 March 1914.

BooksBonds
in each
ValueSeriesNumber range
20 100 $100 C 1-2000
6 100 $500 B 1-600
5 100 $1000 A 1-500

 

These books were printed and delivered to the Tesorería in AprilAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2983, letter Oficial Primero to Tesorero General, 4 April 1914. When Luis Sotomayor handed over responsibility for the Tesorería General to Jesús Ramos in December 1914 he listed the following bonds as in the Tesorería unissued:

BooksBonds
in each
ValueSeriesfromtoTotal
value
20 100 $100 C 1 2000 200,000
1 64 $500 B 37 100 32,000
5 100 101 600 250,000
1 90 $1000 A 11 100 90,000
4 100 101 500 400,000

 

and Sotomayor recorded that the 36 $500 bonds (B 1-36) had been issued to Miguel Latz y Hermanos of Magdalena as replacements for bonds B 121 – 156 of the old issue and the ten $1,000 bonds (C 1-10) had been issued to the Moctezuma Copper Company, again in exchange for bonds of the earlier issueAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 2991, handover folder, 15 – 22 December 1914.

1914 Certificados

Meanwhile, in order not to interrupt the process of meeting creditors’ claims, the Tesorería General was instructed to issue certificates or documentary proofs (certificados ó constancias) that would be exchangeable for bonds at a later dateAlcance to El Estado de Sonora, 7 March 1914.

One such certificado for $10,713.08 was issued to Quang Chung Lung on 6 April, endorsed to Luis Wolf of Guaymas on 29 September 1914, and later to Carlos Fong of Fong Hong y Cia, Sucs., Cocorit. The certificado mentioned that it would be paid in state bonds (Bonos del Estado). On 17 November 1921 Carlos Fong was asking for payment but was told to contact the central governmentAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417 letter Fong Hong y Cía, Sucs., Cócorit, to Governor 17 November 1921; letter Secretario to Carlos Fong, Cócorit, 19 November 1921. The text was “Al margen un sello que dice: - República Mexicana. – TESORERIA GENERAL DEL ESTADO DE SONORA. – HERMOSILLO. – Núm. 39 – EL TESORERO GENERAL DEL ESTADO que subscribe, hace constar que el Sr. QUING CHUNG LUNG, he presentado y dejado en poder de esta Tesorería dos facturas que amparan mercancías que ministró al Estado, para sus atenciones de guerra, durante el periodo comprendido del 1ro. de Febrero al 31 de Diciembre de 1913, las cuales le fueron admitidas de conformidad reconociéndosele el crédito cuyo importe total es de: $10,713.88 DIEZ MIL SETECIENTOS TRECE PESOS OCHENTA Y OCHO CENTAVOS, que le será pagado con BONOS DEL ESTADO, que se le expedirán una vez que sea acordada la fecha que el caso requiere.
Y para constancia y debida seguridad al interesado, expido el presente documento que será canjeado por los BONOS de que se hace mérito. – Hermosillo, Abril 6 de 1914. – El Tesorero General, Interino. – L.SOTOMAYOR. – (Rúbrica.) esta Constancia es transferible por medio de endoso entre dos testigos. – Páguese a la orden del Sr. Luis Wolf, Valor entendido. – Guaymas, Septiembre 29 de 1914. – QUONG CHONG LUNG. – Testigo EDUARDO GUERRERO. – Testigo T. Marcor – (Rúbricas). – Paguese a la orden de los Sres. Fong Hong y Cía.,Sucs. Cocorit, Valor entendido. – LUIS WOLF. (Rúbrica).”
.

1915 state bonds

Finally, in July 1915 Maytorena decreed (núm. 76) an issue of five million pesos in $100 bonds to guarantee his paper moneyEl Estado de Sonora, 13 July 1915. The bonds were to be payable to the bearer, easily transferable and signed by the Tesorero General and the Director of the Agencia Financiera. However, by this time Maytorena’s cause was dying and it is reasonable to assume, given the difficulties he had encountered at the height of his powers, that nothing came of this decree.

On 29 June 1921 circular 29 asked people who had bonds or other claims from this period to present them within four months from 15 July to a registry in the Secretaría GeneralBoletín Oficial, 12 July 1921. At the same time people were asking for repayment of other documents, for example, bonds of the Junta Hacendaría de Guerra (see below) or other receipts. The government appears to have been extremely reluctant to honour these debts but generally perseverance paid off.

Carranza's Junta Hacendaría de Guerra

On 11 March 1914 Carranza, whilst in Agua Prieta, by his decree núm. 23, created a Junta Hacendaría de Guerra, composed of Francisco S. Elías, Angel J. Lagarda and Alejandro C. Villaseñor, to raise loans (voluntary or otherwise) for the Constitutionalist cause. We know of one bond, núm. 49, for $400, signed by Lagarda y J. M. LizarragaAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417, letter Florencio Frisby, Cumpas, to Governor, 29 August 1921 asking for payment. After examination the bond was returned (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417, letter Secretario de Gobierno to Florencio Frisby, Cumpas, 8 October 1921: Angela G. Vda. de Pico, of Arizpe, ended up with $1,450 in such bondsAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417, Secretario de Gobierno to Angel G. Vda. de Pico, Arizpe, 5 November 1921, whilst Francisco F. Villa, of Cumpas, has bond num. 12 for $275 U.S. dollarsAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417, Francisco F. Villa, Cumpas, to Secretario de Gobierno, 18 October 1921. On 13 January 1921 the state agreed to pay Ignacio G. Soto $2,000 for four bonds, núm. 1 to 4, that he had (AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417, letter Secretario de Gobierno to Diputado Ignacio G. Soto, 13 Jan 1921) These were stated to be in ORO NACIONAL and so were possibly Junta Hacendaría de Guerra bonds. .

Donaciano Mungaro of Cumpas made a voluntary loan of $125 to the Junta and received only an acknowledgement (oficio) as there was no time to issue a receiptAGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417 letter Donaciano Mungaro, Cumpas, to Governor, 14 December 1921. Servando Guerra received a certificado (elsewhere bono) for $400AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417 letter Angela G. Vda, de Guerra, to Governor, 5 August 1921.

On 28 May 1921 circular 24 said that the Junta's bonds could be used in payment of taxes up to the year 1920. Some claimants were redirected to the central Secretaría de Hacienda y Crédito Público in Mexico City for any compensationFor example, AGHES, Fondo Oficialidad Mayor, tomo 3417 letter Gobernador Interino to Adolfo de la Huerta, Secretario de Hacienda y Crédito Público, 10 August 1921.